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nean plan of throwing out the seeds that stamper, which, fitting snugly outside the floated in the water, but it quickly became box, guided the appliance as it was lowapparent that this was no test for them, ered to place. the difference in specific gravity being so INSERTING THE SEEDS.-The stamping. slight and variable that half the seeds completed, it was next in order to drop a that floated in the evening would be at the seed-one only- in each indentation. bottom in the morning, and vice versa. COVERING.-As soon as a box had reWith native seeds the only test that seems coivod its complement of seeds, a layer of worthy of mention is that of size and half an inch of the same prepared soil plumpness, the fuller being the more fer- was added, thus covering the seeds setile. With Tahiti seeds, however, the test curely and evenly. The final leveling of may be applied with advantage. Put the the surface was performed by a striker seeds in water and reject all that float. exactly like the one first named only not
PREPARATORY TO PLANTIG.-As soon as a row of
SESSA boxes was in
LLLLL piace, I sprinkled them lightly to give consistency to the soil for convenience of working. Then I wont over them with an implement which, for lack of a better name, I call
THE PROPAGATING HOUSE. A STAMPER.-A board nineteen inches notched so deeply. The soil as finally square, perforated with auger holes an leveled was an inch below the rim of the iuch and a half apart, and a round-headed box. The final operation was pin (I used old-fashioned clothes-pins) in- WETTING-Which was done as soon as serted in each hole. There were one hun- a row of boxes had been planted and leydred and fourteen pins, and these, when eled. With a fine rose sprinkler attached
to the hose, I sprayed the boxes until the soil was well moistened. My bed of one hundred and sixty boxes contained a little more than eighteen thousand seeds.
A PROPAGATING HOUSE.--This was already occupied before it was built. I had "anticipated," as the novelists say ; but this was done designedly, because I
thought it would be easier to build the have a
house oyer the boxes after they had been planted and arranged than to move the
boxes, after planting, into the house. My THE STAMPER.
propagating house was a very simple afthe stamper was applied with considera- fair, though entirely different from the ble pressure upon the plastic surface of inuslin covering usually prescribed in the soil in the box, left one hundred and such cases. I built, in fact, a structure fourteen little indentations. Accuracy in quite similar to a chicken coop, roofed over the matter of stamping was promoted by with lath. The house was twenty feet by a couple of cleats on opposite sides of the thirty in ground dimensions and six feet
high. This was a little larger than my hauled to the nursery and the trees left bed of one hundred and sixty boxes re- undisturbed until each, in turn, is set into quired, but I provided for extra “elbow the ground. room." The framework of the house was 4. By the use of the Widney transplantof two by three redwood stuff, posts six er, or some similar device, a ball of earth feet apart, and a row of posts standing may be taken up with each tree, thus longitudinally through the middle (plant- avoiding an exposure of the roots to sun ed in the central alley) to sustain the roof. and air and greatly augmenting the All of the lath work for sides and roof was chances of life and thrift in the young built in detached panels, the roof panels tree. being merely laid on a framework provid. EXPENSE.-The items of expense of my ed for that purpose, and the side panels seed and planting (native seeds) and proptacked on so that they could all be re- agating house were as follows : moved at will. In the winter when my One hundred and sixty boxes at nine cents.. $14 40 young trees needed all the sunshine they Making sane, two days at $2.50....... could get, these panels were taken off the Hauling and preparing soil.................. 3 00 south and east sides and the top. Thus I Planting seeds.....................
....... 10 00
....... 35 00 got a good exposure without moving the Propagating house............. boxes. Around the sides of the house for Total............ ............. $67 40 the height of two feet there was a base of The items for propagating house and three inch strips with open spaces of an boxes need not be considered an irremeinch between. These were deisgned to re- diable expense, as the boxes will serve main permanently as a guard against dep for another season's propagation, if deredating aninials, The movable side panels sired, and the house will do for many seawere fitted above this base. The general sons, or it may be readily converted to appearance of the house is represented in other uses. The panels being all detached the foregoing cut.
are iminediately serviceable for a fence or OBJECTS AND ADVANTAGES.-The main chicken coop. object of this lath structure built over CONVENIENT TO WATER.-My propathe propagating boxes was to supply gating house was located close to a hya semi-shade for the young plants, drant, and by attaching a hose and using as they could not endure the full glare of a rose nozzle I could irrigate the enthe summer sun. The particular advant- tire bed in twenty minutes. I took care ages which I claim for my propagating at first not to allow the surface of the soil house over a muslin covering are its free to become dry. It was necessary to irriadmission of light and air, its easy access- gate every alternate day. ibility and the excellent protection which MULCHING.–The retention of moisture it offers from animals. When cloth is was greatly promoted by a mulching of used for a shade there is much trouble in wheat chaff, which I spread over the removing the covering when one wishes boxes immediately after planting the to get at the plants. Then, too, the boxes seeds. I took care that my chaff was cannot be grouped so compactly, but need thoroughly freed from wheat before putto be strung out in long tiers. But the old ting it on, as there was no room in the way of propagating does not contemplate boxes to raise grain. boxes at all, the seeds being sown broad. DANGER IN TOO MUCH MOISTURE.-cast in a bed and afterwards transplanted. The boxes must not be kept too wet. I The advantages which I gain from the lost some young plants from what nurboxes are these :
sey-men call “damping off,"'--the roots 1. The seeds being distributed regularly rotting and the stems and leaves turning and not too close together, each plant as vellow and withering. As stated, I abundance of room from the outset.
sprinkled my bed every alternate day to 2. No transplanting is necessary until
begin with. This plan was followed well the trees are a year old, when they can be
through the summer, when the irrigations placed in the nursery rows at once. were reduced to two a week, then one a
3. In transplanting, the boxes may be week, and finally, when the winter rains set in, discontinued altogether. The loss by making the covering of clean sand inof plants from damping off was inconsid- stead of the prepared soil. erable, and due, I am led to believe, more ENEMIES TO THE YOUNG PLANTS.--I to imperfect drainage in some of the boxes lost a number of plants through the depthan to an excess of water applied. In ir- ' redations of a pair of linnets, which rigating, however, it should be borne in seemed to take great delight in nipping mind that the earth needs simply a good off the tender new growth. I succeeded ..moistening, not a soaking.
finally in scaring the little fiends away. GERMINATION OF THE SEEDS. - Six The next trouble came from a family of weeks after planting, the greenish- toads that attempted to squat on my yellow orange shoots began to appear in claim. These I carried out by the hind the boxes. They came along quite irreg- legs. A rabbit got into the inclosure on ularly, but in three months the quota was one occasion and mowed down some of well filled. Some seeds, lacking vitality, the trees. He did not come again. These, sent up weak and spindling shoots; oth- with the damping off, were the only fatalers, from an excess of germinative force ities which overtook my young nursery. produced twins. Some of the former died, But under different circumstances new and the latter I thinned out to one stalk enemies might appear. It is advisable apiece, putting the extra plants in vacant
for one to keep a sharp lookout continuplaces.
ally, for, in the words of the hymn, “Ten WEEDING. - Two thorough weedings, thousand foes arise." with a little attention in snipping out ir
PROTECTION FROM COLD.--During two regular interlopers, sufficed to keep the
or three cold spells which occurred in the bed clean the year through. Herein, as
winter, I kept the young trees covered stated, I experienced the benefits of a clean
with gunny sacks and such other old soil. Had I used manure instead of nat
cloths as were available. ural mold there would have been far more of this business on iny hands. A cover
THE OUTCOME.--In June, one year after ing of green moss, which formed on the planting the seeds, I was ready to transfer surface of the boxes toward the latter part my stock to the nursery rows. From the of summer, gave me some apprehension. 18,000 seeds planted there were 10,000 trees, and I broke it up once by stirring the soil ranging in height from four to twelve between the young plants and omitting inches. Had I chosen to sell them they an irrigation or two; but it came back would have brought me two and one-half during the winter, and I allowed it to re- cents apiece, or an aggregate of $250, main as no harm appeared to result. In which would have paid fairly for the inthe next planting I obviated this difficulty vestment and labor.
PLANTING THE NURSERY. LOCATION.---Much may be said about human prevision, eyery obstacle ought to locating a nursery, but all the rules pre- be anticipated and forestalled. A failure scribed can not obviate the necessity for a to do this in some apparently trivial parstudy of the special requirements in each ticular may entail endless unnecessary case. To a certain extent, every nursery labor, vexations, losses, and perhaps ultiis a law unto itself. There are peculiari- mate discouragement and disaster. Some ties of soil, of situation, of surroundings, good man has said there are no little sins; of climate, which must be considered in nursery planting there are no little · jointly and severally. So far as lies in mistakes.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. - The re- graded plane may have a uniforin pitch of quirements of a nursery may be generally a foot in one hundred in the direction you stated as follows:
intend to irrigate; half a foot would be 1. Accessibility and convenience to better in most localities. If the nursery market.
site is on a hillside sloping to the south, 2. A rich, mellow soil.
make the pitch for the purposes of irriga3. A warm situation,
tion east or west. You cannot, with ad4. Abundance of water.
vantage, run water down any considera5. Convenient irrigation.
ble slope. SOIL.-Provided the elements of strength PREPARATION OF THE Soil, -- The are there, the looser and more friable the ground having been graded, it should be soil the better the trees will flourish. double-plowed and harrowed. This, if it Any ground that bakes hard should be be the kind here recommended, will reavoided. Do not plant your nursery on duce the soil to the requisite tilth. If not adobe land. Trees cannot flourish with perfectly pulverized with this treatment, their roots in vulcanized casings. But, in it should be reduced still further with haravoiding the extreme of stiff soils, do not row or clod-crusher; but the better plan run to the other extreme of too sandy would be to pick out some other locality ground. A certain proportion of humus for your nursery. and some tenacity in the soil are necessary ARRANGEMENT OF THE NURSERY. – to retain moisture and to give the trees a When a nursery is planted on level good footing. Then, too, bear in mind ground, it is considered advisable to run that, by and by, when it comes to taking the rows north and south, in order that up, the trees, you may want to ball the the sun may have the greatest play upon roots. This you cannot do unless the the ground. Ona southern slope the rows earth has a good deal of coherence. Ball- should be east and west, the matter of ing is not a sine qua non, as will be ex- irrigation there assuming paramount implained subsequently, and I would not portance. Located on more broken or advise the abandonment of a generally irregular ground-say a series of knolls good location for the single objection that or hillsides the contour system is adoptthe ground is too loose to ball. The choco- ed, running the rows in curves and relate-colored clayey sands or sandy clays, flexes-keeping always at a certain level which abound in our foothills, are the practicable for leading water along the happy medium of a nursery soil, being rows. The greatest objection to this sys. stiff enough to ball, but not inclined to tem is that it makes cultivation difficult, bake, if fairly cultivated.
sometimes precluding the use of horse WELL DRAINED.-It is necessary that power altogether. the ground for a nursery should be well ROOM FOR ACCESS AND WORKING.- If drained; i. e., there should be no standing your nursery is a large one, divide it into water close to the surface, rendering the tablones, with drive-ways between and soil cold and sodden.
the rows not more than one hundred and TOPOGRAPHY.--Opinions are divided as fifty feet long. This gives convenient acto the comparative advantages of a level cess to all parts of the nursery, and you piece of ground or one with a gentle slope do not have to carry the trees a great disto the southward. The sloping land has tance in loading them into a wagon. It the warmer exposure and is likely to be also allows space for turning, in cultivabetter drained. The level land is more tion. . convenient for irrigation. But whether LAYING OFF THE GROUND.-The estab. the ground be flat or sloping, before the lished way of planting nursery is in square trees are planted it should be graded to as or parallelogram form, with rows four near a perfect plane as possible. Leave feet apart and trees a fool apart in the no basins or hummocks anywhere; they rows. This gives 10,800 trees to the acre. won't do, as you will find at your cost if The operation of laying off is very simple, you attempt to run water over them, The outlines of the nursery or of the tabthrough them or around them. Your lone being established, stick stakes along. two opposite ends to define the rows. weather followed, and the trees were not Then stretch a rope or chain across the shaded, yet my loss did not exceed one ground from stake to stake, and along per cent. this line plant the trees a foot apart.
THE WIDNEY TRANSPLANTER.-The ac- . Various labor-saving methods are in companying cut represents the transvogue for spacing off the ground along
planter comthe line, but none more ingenious and
plete. The cylpractical than that recommended by Mr.
inder A is first Thomas A. Garey in his pioneer work on
used to cut a California orange culture. He says: "For
hole, D, in the marking the spaces in the row, use a tool
ground where made similar to a hand-roller with trian
you wish to set gular pieces a few inches long fastened
the plant. Next lengthwise and a foot apart. Four feet in
the transplanter circumference, or a small fraction more
is set down over :: than fifteen and one-fourth inches in di
the plant, so thatat ameter, is a convenient size for the roller.
the stem and To use this tool, take hold of the handles,
leaves run up place the roller on the tightly-stretched
within the inside
TRANSPLANTER COMline, and push it forward or draw it after
cylinder B. The you along the line; the pieces on the roller outside cylinder is then passed down into will mark crosswise of the line at regular the ground, giving it a slight rotary mo. distances of a foot. If any other distance tion, until you have cut to the depth de-be desired, it can be regulated by the di- sired, generally two or four inches. In ameter of the roller and the distance be- pressing down on the handles care must. tween the strips. Remove the line to the be taken to keep the hands off the inside next proposed row. This leaves a mark cylinder B, which must be left to move lengthwise crossed at regular distances, freely. The rotary motion gives a sharp, ready to receive the plants."
drawing cut. This implement is available in planting After cutting down around the plant to large nurseries. For a small nursery, of the depth required, lift the transplanter course, the labor of making the roller
out of the ground. It would be greater than the marking off by
will bring up the plant some more clumsy method.
with a solid plug of PLANTING.–The accepted time for plant
earth, C, inside the ing a nursery is in April and May, when
cylinder. Now put damp, cool weather is apt to prevail. But,
the transplanter con with proper safeguards, planting may be
taining the plant into done in almost any month of the year
the hole in the ground. when there is no danger from frost or
D, first cut. Set it very excessive heat. If your trees are
down to the bottom of propagated as mine were, in boxes, trans
the hole, so that the planting is simple and sure. The work
bottom of the plug of man carries a box with him along the line
earth rests on the botand transfers each tree, with its ball of
tom of the hole; place earth inclosing the roots, to a place in the INSIDE CYLINDER. the two thumbs on top row.
of the inside cylinder, retaining the hold on The implement used for this is the in- the handles with the fingers, and close the vention of Judge R. M. Widney, of Los hand, thus drawing up the outside cylin-Angeles, and known as the Widney trans- der, while the inside cylinder thus holds planter. Not only is it a great labor-say- the plug of dirt in the hole. The plug of ing device, but its use amounts almost to dirt is thus forced out of the transplanter a guaranty of the life of the plant. With as the wad is forced out of a pop-gun. it I set a nursery of 4000 trees in the When this is done, the plant, with a solid months of June and July. Very hot plug of earth, C, will be left in a hole sțir