« AnteriorContinuar »
KING AND ROYAL FAMILY. LOUIS PHILIP, King of the French ; of the Branch of Orleans, and descended from a brother of Louis XIV; b. Oct. 6, 1773; proclaimed King of the French, Aug. 9, 1830; m. Nov. 25, 1809, Maria AMELIA, daughter of Ferdinand, king of the Two Sicilies, b. April 26, 1782: Issue:
1. FERDINAND, Duke of Chartres; b. Sept. 3, 1810.
Sister of the King.
[THE KING AND Family excluded by the Declaration of the Chamber of Deputies of the 7th of August, 1830.
CHARLES X, King of France and Navarre ; Most Christian Majesty; b. Oct. 9, 1757; succeeded his brother Louis XVIII, Sept. 16, 1824; crowned at Rheims, May 29, 1825; m. Nov. 6, 1773, Maria Theresa, sister of the king of Sardinia, who died at Gratz, June 2, 1805 : Issue :
Louis ANTHONY, Duke of Angonlême, Dauphin; b. Aug. 6, 1775; m. June 10, 1799, Mariu Theresa (Dauphiness), danghter of Louis XVI, b. Dec. 19, 1778.
Louisa Maria Theresa, (daughter of the late Duke of Berry, next brother to the Dauphin); b. Sept. 21, 1819.
Henry, Duke of Bourdeaux (grandson of France, a posthumous son of the late Duke of Berry); b. Sept. 29, 1820.
Council of Ministers of Charles X, 1830.
Keeper of the Seals.
Minister of Marine. Baron de Montbel,
Minister of Finance. Count de Guernon Ranville, Minister of Eccles. Affairs of Public Instruction. Baron Capelle,
Secretary of State for Public Works.]
The following are some of the principal events of the Revolution which has recently taken place in France. On the 19th of March, 1830, the King prorogued the Chamber of Deputies till September 1, in consequence of the stand which they took against the ministry, in their answer to the King's speech; on the 17th of May, he dissolved the Chamber; and at the same time new elections were ordered, and the two Chambers convoked for August 3d. Of the 221 Deputies who voted for the answer, 220 were reëlected; and in the new Chamber, the liberals had a large majority. In consequence of this result, the ministers made a report to the King, which was published July 26, accompanied by three ordinances; one dissolving the Chamber of Deputies; another suspending the liberty of the press; and a third altering the law of election. All the liberal papers in Paris were suppressed; the bank refused to discount bills; the manufacturers discharged their workmen; and the streets of Paris were thronged with people. The editors signed a remonstrance declaring the ordinances illegal, and that they ought to be resisted. On the morning of the 27th, the newspapers and journals appeared as usual, and the seizure of the presses and the imprisonment of the editors were signals of the revolution. The citizens took up arms against the government, and by one o'clock, the following day, obtained a complete victory over the King's Guards. On the 29th of July, the liberal deputies, who had assembled in Paris, appointed Lafayette commander-in-chief of the National Guards; and on the 31st, they published a declaration inviting Louis Philip, Duke of Orleans, to become Lieutenant General of the kingdom. On the same day (31st) Charles X. and his household fled from St. Cloud to Rambouillet; and on the 2d of August, the abdication of the King and the Dauphin, in favor of the Duke of Bourdeaux, with the title of Henry V, was placed in the hands of the Lieutenant General. The two Chambers met on the 3d of August : the Chamber of Deputies declared the throne of France vacant de facto et de jure on the 6th; adopted the new-modelled charter by a vote of 219 to 33, and voted to invite the Duke of Orleans to become King of the French, on condition of his accepting the changes of the Charter, on the 7th; the Duke accepted the crown on the 8th, and took the prescribed oath on the 9th. The Chamber of Peers adopted, on the 7th of August, all the provisions contained in the Declaration of the Chamber of Deputies, except the following, namely, “ All the creations of peers during the reign of Charles X. are declared null and void ;” declaring, that they “would leave the decision of this question to the high prudence of the Prince Lieutenant General.” CONSTITUTIONAL CHARTER AS MODIFIED BY THE DECLARATION OF THE
CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES, Aug. 7, AND SWORN TO BY Louis PHILIP OF ORLEANS, AUG. 9, 1830.
Decluration of the Chamber of Deputies. The Chamber of Deputies, taking into consideration the imperious necessity which is the result of the 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th of July, and the following
and of the situation in which France is at this moment placed, in consequence of this violation of the Constitutional Charter ;-considering, moreover, that by this violation, and the heroic resistance of the citizens of Paris, his Majesty King Charles X, his Royal Highness Louis Anthony, his son, and the senior members of the Royal House are leaving the Kingdom of France, declare that the Throne is vacant de fucto et de jure, and that there is an absolute necessity of providing for it.
The Chamber of Deputies declare, secondly, that according to the wish, and for the interest of the people of France, the preamble of the Constitutional Charter is omitted, as wounding the national dignity, in appearing to grant to them rights which essentially belong to them : and that the succeeding Articles of the same Charter ought to be suppressed or modified in the following manner :
[Translated from “Le Courrier des États-Unis.”] Art. 1. Frenchmen are to be equal in the eyeof the law, whatever may be their titles or their ranks.
2. They are to contribute in proportion to their fortunes to the expenes of the State.
3. They are all to be equally admissible to civil and military employments.
4. Their individual liberty is hereby equally guarantied. No person can be either prosecuted or arrested, except in cases prescribed by the law.
5. Each one may profess his religion with equal liberty, and shall obtain for his religious worship the same protection.
6. The ministers of the Catholic, Apostolic, and Roman religion, professed by the majority of the French, and those of other Christian worship, receive stipends from the public treasury.
7. Frenchmen have the right of publishing and printing their opinions, provided they conform themselves to the laws. The censorship can never be reëstablished.
8. All property is inviolable, without any exception of that which is called national; the law making no difference.
9. The State may exact the sacrifice of property for the good of the public, legally proved; but an indemnity shall be first given to those who may suffer from the change.
10. All searching into the opinions and votes given before the Restoration, is interdicted; and the same oblivion is enjoined upon the tribunals and upon the citizens.
11. The conscription is abolished; the method of recruiting the army for the land and sea service, is to be determined by law.
Of the King's Authority. Art. 12. The person of the King is inviolable and sacred; his ministers are responsible ; to the King alone belongs the executive power.
13. The King is the supreme head of the State ; he commands the forces by sea and by land; declares war; makes treaties of peace, alliance, and commerce; appoints all those who are employed in the public administration; and makes the regulations necessary for the execution of the laws, without having power either to suspend the laws themselves, or dispense with their execution. Nevertheless, no foreign troops can ever be admitted into the service of the State, without an express law,
14. The legislative power is exercised collectively by the King, the Chamber of Peers, and the Chamber of Deputirs.
15. The proposing of the laws belongs to the King, to the Chamber of Peers, and to the Chamber of Deputies. Nevertheless, every law imposing a tax must be first voted by the Chamber of Deputies.
16. Every law must be discussed and voted freely by the majority of each of the two Chambers.
17. If a proposed law be rejected by one of the three powers, it cannot be brought forward again in the same session.
18. The King alone sanctions and promulgates the laws.
19. The Civil List is to be fixed for the duration of the reign by the first Legislative Assembly after the accession of the King.
Of the Chamber of Peers. Art. 20. The Chamber of Peers is an essential portion of the legislative power.
21. It is to be convoked by the King at the same time as the Chamber of Deputies. The session of one is to begin and to end at the same time as that of the other.
22. Any assembly of the Chamber of Peers which may he held at a time which is not that of the session of the Chamber of Deputies, is unlawful and void of all force, except in the single case in which it is assembled as a Court of Justice, and then it can exercise only judicial functions.
23. The nomination of the Peers of France is the prerogative of the King. Their number is unlimited. He can vary their dignities, and name them Peers for life, or make them hereditary at his pleasure.
24. Peers may enter the Chamber at iwenty-five years of age, and have a deliberative voice at the age of thirty years.
25. The Chamber of Peers is to be presided over by the Chancellor of France, and in his absence, by a Peer named by the King.
26. The Princes of the Blood are Peers by right of birth. They take their seats next to the President.
27. The sittings of the Chamber of Peers are to be public, and also those of the Chamber of Deputies.
28. The Chamber of Peers takes cognizance of high treason, and of attempts against the safety of the State, which shall be defined by the law.
29. No Peer can be arrested but by the authority of the Chamber, or judged but by it in a criminal matter.
Of the Chamber of Deputies. Art. 30. The Chamber of Deputies shall be composed of deputies elected by the electoral colleges, of which the organization is to be determined by law,
31. The deputies are to be elected for the space of five years.
32. No deputy can be admitted into the Chamber till he has attained the age of thirty years, and if he does not possess the other conditions prescribed by the law.
33. If, however, there should not be in the department fifty persons of the age specified, paying the amount of taxes fixed by law, their number shall be completed from the persons who pay the greatest amount of taxes under the amount fixed by law, who may be elected concurrently with the first.
34. No person can be an elector if he is under 25 years of age ; and if he does not possess all the other conditions determined by the law.
35. The presidents of the electoral colleges are to be named by the electors.
36. One half at least of the deputies shall be chosen from those who have their political residence in the department.
37. The President of the Chamber of Deputies is to be elected by the Chamber itself, at the opening of each session.
38. The sittings of the Chamber are to be public; but the request of five members shall be sufficient to enable the Chamber to resolve itself into a secret committee,
39. The Chamber is to be divided into committees, to discuss laws which may be proposed.
40. No tax can be established or collected, if it has not been consented to by the two Chambers, and sanctioned by the King.
41. The land and house tax can be voted for one year only. The indirect taxes may be voted for several years.
42. The King is to convoke every year the two Chambers, and he has the right to prorogue them, and to dissolve that of the Deputies; but in this case he must convoke a new one within the period of three months.
43. No bodily restraint can be exercised against a member of the Chamber during the session, nor for six weeks which precede or follow the session.
44. No member of the Chamber can be, during the session, prosecuted or arrested in a criminal matter, unless taken in the act, till after the Chamber has permitted his arrest.
45. Every petition to either of the Chambers must be made in writing. The law interdicts its being carried in person to the bar.
Of the Ministers. Art. 46. The ministers may be members of the Chamber of Peers or the Chamber of Deputies. They have, moreover, their entrance into either Chamber, and are entitled to be heard, when they demand it.
47. The Chamber of Deputies has the right of impeaching the ministers, or of bringing them before the Chamber of Peers, which alone can judge them.
Art. 48. All justice emanates from the King; it is administered in his name, by the judges, whom he names, and whom he institutes.
49. The judges named by the King are not removable.
50. The ordinary courts and tribunals existing are to be maintained, and there is to be no change but by virtue of a law.
51. The existing institution of the tribunal of commerce is preserved.
52. The office of justice of the peace is equally preserved. The justices of the peace, though named by the King, are not unremovable.
53. No one can be deprived of his natural judges.
54. Consequently, there can be no extraordinary commissions or tribunals, under any title or denomination whatever.
55. The debates shall be public in criminal matters, except when that publicity may be dangerous to public order and manners; and in that case the tribunal is to declare so by a distinct judgment.
56. The institution of juries is preserved; the changes which a longer experience may render necessary can be effected only by a distinct law.
57. The punishment of the confiscation of goods is abolished, and cannot be reëstablished.
58. The King has the right to pardon and to commute punishments.
59. The civil code, and the laws actually existing, that are not contrary to the present Charter, shall remain in full force until they shall be legally abrogated.
Particular Rights guarantied by the State. Art. 60. The military in actual service, officers and soldiers retired, widows, officers and soldiers pensioned, are to preserve their rank, honors, and pensions.
61. The public debt is guarantied ; every sort of engagement made by the State with its creditors, is inviolable.
62. T'he ancient nobility resume their titles; the new preserve theirs; the King creates nobles at his pleasure; but he only grants to them rank and honors, without exemption from the burdens and duties imposed on them as members of society.
63. The Legion of Honor is maintained. The King is to determine the regulations and the decorations. 64. The Colonies are to be governed by particular laws and regulations.
65. The King and his successors shall swear, at their accession, in presence of the two Chambers, to observe faithfully the present Constitutional Charter.
66. The present Charter, and all the rights it consecrates, remain entrusted to the patriotism and courage of the National Guard and all the citizens.
67. France resumes her colors; in future no other cockade shall be wom than the tri-colored.
Supplementary Provisions. The Chamber of Depaties declares that it is necessary to provide successively by separate laws, and that with the shortest possible delay ;
1. For the extension of the trial by jury to misdemeanors of the press ; 2. For the responsibility of ministers and the other agents of government; 3. For the reëlection of deputies appointed to public offices with salaries ; 4. For the annual voting of the army estimates;
5. For the oganization of the National Guards, their officers to be chosen by themselves ;