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nation, that he had paid for his purchase with a five-pound note,

and received change for the same, which he produced. No other It is curious and amusing to witness, on pay-day in a man-of- money than what he accounted for was found upon him ; whilst war, the operation of dealing between a seaman and a Jew. They reference to the prize-agent showed that he had received the very meet with a perfect understanding that each shall endeavour to five-pound note produced. The matter was now clear: the Jew over-reach, or, more plainly speaking, to cheat the other. The attempted to call witnesses, but no further hearing was permitted. seaman, whose character for disinterestedness is proverbial, He was turned out of the ship, with his wares, amidst the opproalthough scrupulously honest in other respects, has not the briums of the crew; and even his own fraternity joined in the cry, smallest compunction in cheating, or rather in attempting to so conclusive did the case appear. cheat, for he seldom succeeds in cheating-a Jew. We need We have related this circumstance because it is one case-cer. hardly state that, in the endeavour, he generally becomes the prey tainly the only one we ever knew-where a seaman succeeded in of his more wary and subtle opponent.

cheating a Jew; and it is remarkable, that the two men concerned During the time that large payments were made in bank paper, in this dishonest proceeding were the best seamen in the ship, a very common and successful practice adopted by the Jew to and would probably have given their last shilling to any deserving detraud his sailor customer, was to return change for a note of less object. When, after a length of time, the matter became known value than the one he had accepted in payment. The seaman, to the first lieutenant, he obliged the boatswain's mate to make having received a large sum at the pay.table, in notes of different restitution to the suffering party, on the ship's return to port; but value, crammed into his pockets, thought himself clever in bating the Jew was never afterwards permitted to come on board ; neither a few shillings in the value of an article, when he was often put off could the two seamen be persuaded that they had committed any with change for a two or a five, instead of a ten-pound note: offence in conspiring to do a Jew.” Disputes sometimes arise ; but, as the men are usually half-stupid with drink, and can give no clear account of the mode in which they have spent their money, -as, moreover, they are frequently

THE GARDEN. robbed by the women,-and the accused party is loud in protest ing his innocence by the most solemn asseverations, there is a

How vainly men themselves amaze, difficulty, or nearly an impossibility, in obtaining proof and

To win the palm, the oak, or bays : redress. We, however, recollect an occasion (and it is a solitary

And their incessant labours see one) when a seaman cheated a Jew at his own practice; and the

Crown'd from some single herb, or tree, truth was only discovered several months after the event happened, by the confession of one of the parties.

Whose short and narrow-verged shade Upon an occasion of paying prize-money to the crew of a frigate

Does prudently their toils upbraid ; in Plymouth Sound, at the commencement of last war, a boat

While all the flow'rs, and trees, do close swain's mate complained to the first lieutenant, that a Jew had

To weave the garlands of repose. defrauded him of a ten-pound note, which he had given in payment for a hat, tendering him the change of a two-pound note instead.

Fair Quiet, have I found thee here, The charge was sifted with more than ordinary attention, as both

And Innocence, thy sister dear parties courted investigation, and reference was made to the prize

Mistaken long, I sought you then agent's books, for the number of the ten-pound note paid to the complainant. The note in question was missing, but it appeared

In busy companies of men. that the two-pound note, which the Jew insisted he had received

Your sacred plants, if here below, in payment, had formed part of the complainant's share, and as

Only among the plants will grow. the missing note could not be found upon him, the case was dis

Society is all but rude missed, on the supposition that the charge was either unfounded, or

To this delicious solitude. that the Jew had put away the note before a search was made. The reference to the prize-agent's books in the cabin, when the

No white nor red was ever seen business of payment had not concluded, gave the seaman the idea of

So am'rous as this lovely green. a deep-laid scheme, which he put in practice about a twelvemonth afterwards.

Fond lovers, cruel as their flame, The frigate having been fortunate in captures, prize-money or

Cut in these trees their mistress' name. wages were always paid (oftentimes in considerable sums to the

Little, alas ! they know or heed, petty officers), on the day before sailing. The share of the

How far these beauties her exceed ! boatswain's mate on the next occasion was upwards of seventy

Fair trees ! where'er your barks I wound, pounds, and he was paid in a fifty-pound and smaller notes. When

No name shall but your own be found. matters had arrived at a tolerable state of bustle on the main deck, the business of the dealing at its height, bank-notes passing in payment for watches and other articles with extraordinary rapidity,

When we have run our passions' heat, this boatswain's mate, having taken a messmate into his plot,

Love hither makes his best retreat. exchanged his fifty-pound note with his colleague for a five, and

The gods, who mortal beauty chase, sent him to the devoted Jew, with instructions to purchase a

Still in a tree did end their race. jacket. This was effected, the pote tendered, and the change

Apollo hunted Daphne so, received. Not long after, the boatswain's mate approached the

Only that she might laurel grow ; same stand, and, after a little haggling, bought a handkerchief, or some cheap article, and gave the five-pound note in payment.

And Pan did after Syrinx speed, Now, it is contrary to the practice of the children of Israel to

Not as a nymph, but for a reed. conclude any bargains so long as a buyer seems disposed to extend his purchases, and although on these occasions they take the

What wond'rous life is this I lead! precaution to secure payment for the first article delivered, they

Ripe apples drop about my head. are reluctant to render up change and close the dealing, until further solicitation to buy becomes hopeless. After a while, a

The luscious clusters of the vine final denial for further dealing was accepted, and the change ten

Upon my mouth do crush their wine. dered. Our strategist required the balance of fifty, instead of five

The nectarine, and curious peach, pounds; high words arose, recriminations and allusions to the

Into my hands themselves do reach. former affair were bandied, and an appeal once more made to the

Stumbling on melons, as I pass, same first-lieutenant, on the same quarter-deck. The officer

Insnar'd with flow'rs, I fall on grass. adopted his former course, and, on reference, ascertained that a fifty-pound note found on the Jew was paid to the complainant. So far things looked suspicious ; but the dealer asserted that he

Meanwhile the mind, from pleasure less, could point out the man from whom he received it. The hands

Withdraws into its happiness : were turned up, the crew passed in review, and he immediately

The mind, that ocean where each kind selected the individual, who denied the charge, stating, in expla

Does straight its own resemblance find.

Yet it creates, trapscending these,

domestic purposes. Those parts of the soil that are cleared by the Far other worlds, and other seas ;

removal of the salt are found to contain a great quantity of liquid,

consisting of various kinds of salts of a black colour, and this is Annihilating all that's made

particularly the case in the neighbourhood of Sak; where, for a To à green thought in a green shade.

great length of time, this saline liquid has been used for medicinal

purposes from May to September. A long and tolerably deep Here at the fountain's sliding foot,

trench is dug, which, with the mud that is taken from it, is left to As at some fruit-tree's mossy root,

warm in the sun; the patient is then laid in the trench, and

covered up with the mud, except his head and throat, when a Casting the body's vest aside,

copious perspiration soon takes place all over the body, and he My soul into the boughs does glide :

must remain in this situation as long as he can. He is afterwards There, like a bird, it sits and sings,

washed with water from the lake, or is put in a bath of the same Then whets, and claps its silver wings ;

water, and is then laid in bed to promote a perspiration, which is And, till prepared for longer flight,

considered highly eficacious in promoting his cure.

This mud-bath has been found to be of the greatest service to Waves in its plumes the various light.

persons afflicted with chronic rheumatism, chronic gout, and

many other diseases. Many have been entirely cured by it, when Such was the happy garden state,

all other remedies have failed. Yet it must be observed, that While man there walk'd without a mate :

some patients, who have submitted to this mode of treatment, After a place so pure and sweet,

have been obliged to give it up after the first or second trial,

because their skin has become irritated, their nervous system sudWhat other help could yet be meet !

denly disturbed, and their pulse violently agitated. But 'twas beyond a mortal's share

The very efficacious effects which these baths have produced To wander solitary there :

have extended their fame not only over the Crimea, but also over Two paradises are in one,

the adjoining continent, and patients resort to them in greater To live in paradise alone.

numbers every year. The accommodation in the poor and miserable huts of the Tartars was not only very uncomfortable, but for

many patients even dangerous; and it was also very expensive. It How well the skilful gard'ner drew

must, therefore, be a great satisfaction to those who wish to try Of flow'rs, and herbs, this dial new :

the mud-baths at Sak, that, for two years past, a tolerably large Where, from above, the milder sun

and well-arranged dwelling-house has been erected there by the Does through a fragrant zodiac run :

Russian government, in which any respectable person may have a And, as it works, th' industrious bee

very comfortable lodging, entirely free of expense. This house

stands quite by itself, between the village of Sak and the lake, and Computes its time as well as we.

consists of one story of solid stone-work, of an oblong form, How could such sweet and wholesome hours

standing nearly due east and west. It is ornamented in the Eastern Be reckor'd but with herbs and flow'rs?

style, with several small towers. That side of the building which ANDREW MARVEL.

faces the south, and commands an extensive view of the lake and the surrounding country, has a projection the whole length of the house, which contains two dwelling-rooms, and a deep verandah

supported by wooden pillars ; so that any of the inmates may be THE MUD-BATHS OF THE CRIMEA."

protected from the scorching rays of the sun while walking under

A similar, To the many peculiar and remarkable objects in the Crimea it, or while inhabiting those rooms facing the south. which attract the attention of the scientific traveller, the mud-baths but narrower, verandah is on the north side of the building. The of Sak certainly should be added. Sak is a large Tartarian village width.

rooms have all tolerably high ceilings, but vary in length and

Some of them are large enough for a family. The doors in the south-western part of the Crimea, and is situated near the

and passages are so arranged, that several rooms may form à north-eastern shore of Tusly, one of the largest of the numerous separate lodging for one family; or one may be so separated from salt lakes in that peninsula. This lake is about six or seven wersts the others, that a person may live in it alone. The windows are long, and nearly two or three broad. Its banks, which are of clay, large and of clear glass, and the rooms have deal floors. They are are generally high and steep; but near the village of Sak, they are almost all much better furnished than those in any of the inns in flat, or gently sloping. The country around, even to a great dis- the Crimea, with the exception perhaps of the Hôtel de Paris, in tance, is a slightly wavy and almost uniform plain, which only Feodosia. Even beds and bedclothes are found in this new produces grass and a few plants of a kind of wormwood; but nó building, which are but seldom met with in the inns of the Crimea. tree of any description is to be seen. There are flocks of It is also kept exceedingly clean throughout, and strikes those dromedaries, horses, black cattle, and sheep; and near the banks who come to it from the hotels of Sympheropol with a most of the lake, are a few larks and whistling plovers. Towards the agreeable surprise. There are two wings on the north side, which end of the month of June, when the writer resided in the village also contain dwelling-rooms; to which are added, stables, coachof Sak, almost all the plants of the plains were burnt up, by an houses, the house of the manager of the establishment, the kitchen, unusually early and very scorching heat ; à dead stillness reigned and two small houses for the servants; and there are high stone around, which was seldom interrupted except by the cry of the walls which divide these buildings. The whole forms a quadranwhistling plover, and the chirping of the grasshopper.

gle, with a large court-yard in the centre. There is plenty of cool, In winter, and the early part of spring, when the moisture of pure, and well-tasted water ; and the domestic arrangements are the atmosphere has thoroughly soaked the parched plains, the undertaken by the manager of the establishment. rain-water and melted snow swell the salt lake, and cause it to The season for the baths begins on the 1st of July, when the overflow the lower parts of its banks. Later in spring, on the con principal physician of the city of Eupatoria comes to reside in the trary, and during summer, when the heat is excessive and there is mansion." A large tent, divided by partitions into a great many but little rain, the water in the lake becomes very much diminished small apartments, is then erected over the place where the mud in consequence of evaporation, and leaves the flat parts of its baths are to be formed ; the ground having been previously covered banks exposed, particularly near the village of Sak. When the with a suitable flo of boards, so that neither the tent nor the water first recedes, the soil only remains soaked with a solution of visitors may be in any danger of sinking in the mire. The the numerous salts which the lake contains; but when it recedes writer unfortunately arrived somewhat too late to see the tent farther, it leaves behind it, on account of its becoming by degrees erected and the baths used; but he was informed, that one side of more concentrated, a thick layer of salt, which gradually extends the tent consists of a long wooden frame covered with canvas, over the surface of the exposed parts, and forms a general and contains as many doors as there are divisions within. These covering, that has exactly the appearance of smooth and doors are all towards the south, and, when a trench is dug in shining ice.

any apartment for a patient, the door is left open, so that the The salt is collected in summer, and heaped up on the banks of rays of the noon-day sun may sufficiently warm the trench and the lake in immense quantities, where it is purified by the rains the mud that was taken out of it, before the patient is put into and the action of the air for a whole year; and it is then sold for 1 his bath.

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Numbers of known bad
in these
Classes to the

&c. of the people of the “great metropolis,” every day, in the OUTLINES OF MODERN DEPREDATION.

working out of one department of crime! One can hardly believe Tae only remnant of the “mounted highwayman" which we this—and yet the good folks of the Town Council of Liverpool have in England, is the dead body of Dick Turpin, galvanised by reckoned in 1836, that in their town there were a thousand adult Ainsworth, Dickens, Bentley, Colburn, and Co. and made to per thieves, whose weekly income being not less than 40s. per week form sundry strange antics, as if it were yet alive. So highly civi. each, amounted to a total annually of £104,000 ; 500 ditto, who lised have we become, that robbery and thieving have lost every work and steal, whose fruit of crime was a round annual sum of particle of their supposed romance, generosity, and daring—the £26,000; and 1200 juvenile thieves, earning weekly 10s. each, thieving of modern times never exhibits anything of the daring of amounting to £31,200 ; while the entire annual amount earned by the lion, though it still continues to be practised with all the the professors of crime and vice in the borough of Liverpool was sneaking cunning of the cat. On the strength of the old and trite set down at £734,240. axiom, that a knowledge of a disease is half its cure, we proceed to We beg leave to call the aitention of our readers to the following lay before our readers the outlines of modern depredation, as table. In Liverpool, Bristol, Bath, Hull, and Newcastle-uponsketched for us by the Commissioners for inquiring into the best | Tyne, there are police establishments framed and conducted upon means of establishing a Constabulary Force throughout England the principle of the Metropolitan. The following, therefore, is a and Wales. The following facts are all drawn from their Report, comparative statement affirmed to have been prepared with great recently published.

care, showing the character of the districts with which a police, “We find,” says the Report, “no traces of mounted highway acting upon the principle of an incessant and vigilant superintendrobbers amongst the class of habitual depredators, and could find ence, has to deal. no recent cases of the robbery of mails, or of travellers in stage

TABLE showing the number of Depredators, Offenders, and Suspected Per. coaches by robbers of that description. The last case of robbery

sons, who have been brought within the cognizance of the Police of the by a mounted highway robber, was that of a man executed for an following districts or places in the year 1837, comprehending-1. Persons

who have no visible means of subsistence, and who are beliered to live offence of this description committed near Taunton in the year

wholly by violation of the law; as, by habitual depredation, by fraud, by 1831. The suppression of highway robberies in the vicinity of the

prostitution, &c. II. Persons following some ostensible and legal occupametropolis dates from the appointment of an armed horse-patrol. tion, but who are known to have committed an offence, and are believed to

augment their gains by habitual or occasional violation of the law. At present, the roads in the suburbs of the metropolis are traversed

Persons not known to have committed any offences, but known as associates by your Majesty's subjects at all hours of the night, almost with of the abore Classes, and otherwise deemed to be Suspicious Characters :the same security as in the day. Robberies in the neighbourhood of provincial towns are rendered more hazardous than here.

Number of

Proportion tofore, by the increased number of turnpikes and other means of


Characters recognition and of detection. To the stoppage of coaches, and

District or Place.

and robberies by such acts of violence, have succeeded the simple

Suspected Migrant. Population. thefts of parcels, which is a species of delinquency more safe and lucrative, and, as far as we are informed, they are more frequent Metropolitan Police District


1 in 89 than highway robberies were formerly. But footpad robberies, Borough of Liverpool

4,711 the robberies of single passengers committed with violence, are still City and County of Bristol

3,481 City of Bath

so far frequent as to render travelling at night in many districts Town and County of Kingston-on-
extremely insecure.” The number of persons apprehended and Hull
committed for trial, in England, charged with robbery committed

Town and County of Newcastle-on-

with violence, was 334 in 1826, and 290 in 1837. The following
are some general statements :

What ! some of our readers may exclaim, the proportion of First : it is stated that there are, on an average, a hundred known bad characters in the metropolis is to the population as 1 thousand commitments annually, of the able-bodied population to in 89! Then, deducting the very old and the very young, and the the jails of England and Wales ; and second, that from twelve to sick, and the home-occupied, and the absent, every second or third twenty thousand persons are constantly in the criminal jails. person we pass in the streets must be a bad character, ready for But we would, of course, form a very wrong notion of the amount cheating, swindling, robbing, or pocket-picking, as circumstances of crime, if we were to frame our estimate of it from the number or inclination may permit or prompt ! It is difficult to keep down of commitments. The commissioners conjecture that there are at a suspicion of exaggeration ; the returns are prepared by the only least 40,000 persons in England living wholly by depredation. parties who can do so, the heads of the police ; and yet, however The common answer of prisoners, as to the number of depredations honourable these parties may be, one can hardly help thinking that in which they have been engaged, is “Impossible to tell,”' “ Can't there must always be a strong tendency to augmentation, when recollect,” • Too many to remember.” Pickpockets-that is to people, who live by their profession, are called upon to state the say, the lowest class of thieves, who live by small and petty amount of business which they have to transact. crimes—calculate that they must steal, at least, about six pocket But the table requires some explanation. Amongst the 17,000 handkerchiefs (or things of that value) a day, in order barely to bad characters of the metropolis are set down 2768

habitual live; and these pocket-handkerchiefs are sold to the Jews in Field disturbers of the public peace," about 1300 vagrants, and about Lane, and similar places, for a shilling or one shilling and three- 7000 females leading an infamous life. This will leave about 5000 pence, each ; if one happens to be very good, the thief may get who may be considered as habitual criminal offenders ; and when eighteen-pence for it. There are, reckoning in round numbers, we consider (as was stated in a recent Number) that there are about 800 professed pickpockets in the metropolis, and about 3700 between three and four thousand persons tried annually at the common thieves. If each of these steal, on an average, seven Central Criminal Court, it does not appear that the numbers stated shillings' worth daily, in order “ to live," there is an amount of are wide of accuracy. nearly sixteen hundred pounds of value taken from the pockets There is another matter in the table which merits the attention



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of the reader. It is the column headed “ Numbers in these classes an assortment of cord for that purpose ; and stopping at convemigrant." Thus, out of the 17,000 bad characters in the metro- nient places for the purpose of “ breaking bulk.”

“When,” says polis, 2712 (say 3000) are set down as migrants. These, it will a depredator, “we took wine or spirits, we knocked a hoop aside, be readily concluded, are vagrants and thieves, who start upon and made a hole on one side for letting out the liquor, and one on provincial excursions, either at stated periods or when they find it the other for letting in air : when we had taken what we wanted, convenient to do so. For the reception of these travellers, there we put water in to make it up, and pegged up the hole, and are lodging-houses-thieving hotels over the whole country. replaced the hoop. We had a borer for drawing sugar or dry "The trampers' lodging-house is distinct from the beer-shop or goods ; we slipped the hoop, made a small hole under it, and took the public-house, or any licensed place of public accommodation ; what we liked.” “ As an honest labourer,” says another depredait is not only the place of resort of the mendicant, but of the tor, “ for factory work, I got eleven shillings to thirteen shillings; common thief; it is the fash-house of the rural district; it is but, while I was boating, I have made fifty shillings in one trip, by the receiving house for stolen goods ; it is the most extensively taking goods out of packages. I have cleared five pounds in a established school for juvenile delinquency, and commonly, at the week by depredations.” And another says, “When boating, I same time, the most infamous house in the district." These always took a little of something every journey. The highest sum houses abound everywhere : a tramper states, that there is a I got was twenty-five pounds one trip. The whole crew were lodging-house for "travellers" in every village ; and that these engaged in depredations, and I did as my companions did, and travellers tell the people that they are seeking for work, but took goods of all sorts, which they sold to the different receivers inwardly pray to God they may never get it! Metropolitan on the canal. If we got one half for it, we thought well : the lodging-house keepers have establishments in the provinces, captain was the salesman, and used to have two shares for his managed by their · agents.” These low lodging-houses issue trouble and risk, he having to make all deficiencies good.” “We their “ cards." It is stated that there are from 150 to 200 of them never feared anything,” adds another," for there are no constables in Chester; they are numerous in Brighton; and about 2000 on the canals. There are a few bank-riders on the canal, but the trampers frequent Chelmsford in the course of a year. In the driver gives us the signal, and we get the cloth down, and make small town of Llanfyllin, there are three lodging-houses. One of all right." these is kept by an old woman, known by the name of Old Peggy. Poaching, sheep-stealing, highway robbery, and pilfering, preShe never lets a tramp go to bed without money or money's worth, vail in the rural districts. Near towns, where facilities exist of and the broken victuals a tramp brings home is sold by her to poor disposing of farm and garden produce, thieving is carried on persons who keep dogs,--such as rat-catchers, &c. One man

systematically. At one place, it was a practice for thieves to take told a druggist of the town, that for twopence Old Peggy would orders from purchasers for fruit whilst it was growing. give him scraps enough to keep his dog for a week or more. This farmer told me the other day," says a witness,“ of a great bargain druggist stated that Old Peggy has often come to him, saying, he had made; he got from such a one twenty-eight shillings a ton God bless you, doctor, sell me a ha'porth o'tar.” When first for his mangel wurzel. “Why, the fellow sells it himself again at applied to, he asked, “What do you want with tar?” The reply twenty-five shillings ; there must be something wrong somewhere." was, “Why, to make a land sailor. I want a hap'orth just to The farmer took the hint, and investigated the case. A day or daub a chap's canvas trousers with ; and that's how I makes a land two day after, the man came again for half a ton.

He had it as sailor, doctor!""

usual; but he was followed, and, on examination, we found the We shall give, in another article, some details, taken from the half-ton to be twenty-two hundred weight, instead of ten!” personal narratives of thieves, as communicated to the commis- A prisoner was asked, “What is your calling in life ?---A sioners, which will illustrate the manner in which these “travel- labouring man on a farm. lers o carry on their operations : meantime, we proceed with our “ What are you here for ? --They said I took some potatoes. "outlines.”

"They very often steal in your neighbourhood ?_There is a Plundering the cargoes of passage-boats on the canals has deal of robbery. hitherto formed a great branch of modern thieving. Owing to the

“ What sort of robberies are committed in your neighbourhood ? number of small tunnels through which the boats on the canals -Sometimes housebreaking ; sometimes one thing, sometimes have to pass, the goods are covered with a tarpaulin, instead of another, just as they gives their minds to. having a hatchway over them. The “ art and mystery" of ab. “When persons are plundered, they go and tell the coustable ? straction has accordingly been extensively practised, from the -No, they don't ; they make it away' (they compromise it) with captains of these boats down to the humblest labourer on the the people as robbed them. banks or about the locks. Mr. Pickford, of the firm of Pickford “Do they break into gentlemen's houses ?-Sometimes; but and Co., says, they “can pilfer from a bale of silk almost, if not they break more into one another's cottages, and take just what quite, without its being known ; they can take out of a bale of '| they may like. silk just one hank, without undoing the stitches, and it makes a “ Is there any sheep-stealing ?--Yes, sometimes a sheep goes. very trifling deviation in the weight, which can hardly be detected. If a sheep is stolen, do they sell it to the butchers, or salt it Then with tea. If they have a large lot of tea on board, they down for their own use ?—They salt it, and bury it in some place make just a little sort of break in the corner of the chest; a tea- under ground, and put a large flag (stone) over it. chest is never without some sort of break; and they take a “Do the farmers go to the constable ?--No. handful out of one and a handful out of another." The packages "Are they afraid? Yes; they are afraid that worse may happen that go aboard of these boats are packed by hydraulic presses, and after to them. so firm as to form an arch, so that the centre, when drawn out, “Is there any magistrate ?— Yes, about five miles off; they be will not decrease the bulk of the whole. The boatmen rob the terrible strict about poaching. packages in the most ingenious manner ; taking impressions of the “Do the housebreakers go in gangs ?-Yes, seven or eight to a seals on corks, and resealing ; matching the cord with which the housebreaking job. packages are secured, the captain of the boat generally keeping " Do they travel any distance to commit robberies Yes ; they will go twelve or fourteen miles out to housebreaking or than the level of the stony substance whence they escape. The poaching

water is very clear, and so hot, that the hand cannot bear to be put "Do these men spend their time idling about all day ?—They into it for an instant ; and a large volume of smoke curls roand are always idle by day, and spending money at beer-houses. them constantly. They burst forth from a table of calcareous “They have plenty of money ?-Lots of it, always.

stone nearly half an inch in diameter, and raised in most places “ Is it well known that they are housebreakers and thieves ?- ten or twelve feet above the plain on which it stands. This has Yes.

been formed by the deposite from the water of the springs while Are they watched ?- The farmers watch their own houses, not cooling. Immediately surrounding the springs, the stone is as knowing when they may be attacked; these fellows are getting so white as the purest stucco. The water flowing over a surface nearly uncommon 'hard-faced' (daring)."

horizontal, as it escapes from the vents forms shallow basins, of The coasts of England are disgraced by the practices of different size and shape. The edges of all these basins are " wreckers," to an extent which one can hardly believe of this curiously marked with indentations and projections, like the tops humane, civilised, and Christian country. It is indeed an ill wind

of mushrooms and fleurs-de-lis, formed by calcareous matter, prethat blows nobody good—so say the wreckers of Cornwall and

vented from uniting in one uniform line by the continual but gentle Cheshire. On a portion of the Cheshire coast, not far from undulation of the water entering into and escaping from the several Liverpool, the habits of the people are those of reckless wreckers. basins, which are emptied by small and successive falls into the sur. They will rob those who have escaped the perils of the sea, and rounding plain. By degrees, however, the fringed edge becomes come safe to shore ; they will mutilate dead bodies for the sake of solid, and contracting the basin, of which the hollow fills likewise, rings and personal ornaments ;—a hurricane generally produces to the water takes a new course and makes new reservoirs which in them a glorious harvest. Similar charges can be brought against the people of the south-eastern and the south-western coasts of their turn become solid. Although the water appears perfectly England, though those of Cheshire and Cornwall are the worst.

transparent, the calcareous earth, which it deposits, is of different

colours ; in the first instance, near the mouth, it is delicately white We lift up our hands in amazement and horror, when we hear of without a stain ; at a little distance it assumes a pale straw tint; an African or a New Zealand tribe seizing some of our luckless and further on, a deep saffron hue ; in a second, the deposite has a shipwrecked countrymen, and either putting them to death or rosy hue, which, as it recedes from the source, becomes of a deeper carrying them off captive; yet at this very hour, not only red. These various colours are deposited in the strata, which har. foreigners, but is our own people and our own kindred," can bear dening, retain the tinges they received when soft ; and give rise to testimony to the fact, that tribes of savages dwell round the variously stratified and veined stone and marble. The whirls, English coasts. But for the coast-guard, matters would be worse twists, knots, and waves, which some of the fractured edges er. even than they are.

hibit, are whimsically curious, and show all the changes which the stony matter undergoes, from soft tufa to hard marble. I observed

that the marble is generally formed in the middle of the depth of PETRIFYING SPRINGS IN TIBET.

the mass, rising up with nearly a perpendicular front of the height An extremely interesting account is given in the Asiatic before mentioned; the table must have been the work of ages. Researches, vol. xii., of a journey undertaken, and, after many by the water whilst hot, is probably furnished by the chalky moun

The calcareous matter, which is so largely dissolved and suspended dangers and privations, accomplished, by Captain Moorcroft, to

tains above Tirtápúri; but the origin of the heat, I have no clue to explore that part of Little Tibet where the shawl goat is pastured ; discover. The water must be most strangely situated, for two and also to visit the celebrated lake Mánsaro war, in the neighbour- streams so inconsiderable to throw down such a prodigious quanhood of which the Indus has its origin. The lake has no outlet ; tity of earth ; and the surface, where quiet, is also covered with a but as it is difficult to imagine that evaporation can be sufficiently thin crust of semi-transparent matter like that which rises on powerful, in so cold a climate, to dissipate the large quantity of supersaturated lime-water.” water brought into the lake, in the season of thaw, from the surrounding mountains, Mr. Moorcroft imagines that it may, when

INDIAN PICTURE-WRITING. thus swollen, and at its highest level, communicate with lake Company, in a narrative of a journey which he undertook, in

TAE Rev. Mr. West, who was a chaplain to the Hudson's Bay Rawan, with which the river Sutlej is supposed to have a commu- 1820, within the territory of the Red-River colony, says, “We nication. Of the difficulties and dangers of the journey it would forded Broad River, on the banks of which we saw several dens be impossible to give a condensed account ; paths were traversed which the bears had scratched for shelter ; and seeing the smoke

of an Indian tent-fire at some distance before us, in the direction which appeared impassable to any creature except the sure-footed

we were going, we quickened our step, and reached it before we goat of Tibet ; paths, before which even the “ mauvais pas” of stopped to breakfast. We found the whole family clothed in deer. the Alps shrinks into insignificance ; torrents were crossed by skins, and upon a hunting excursion from Church-hill. The means of bridges which seemed scarcely passable even for the light Indian, or rather a half-breed, was very communicative, and told

me that, though he was leading an Indian life, his father was tread of the goat ; and to crown the whole, the party were obliged formerly a master at one of the Company's posts, and he proposed to endure molestation, delay, and even temporary captivity, by the accompanying our party to the factory. He had two sons, be savage inhabitants of these uncivilized regions. But the object said, who were gone in pursuit of a deer; and, on quitting the was eventually gained ; and the account remains but one of the them to follow us on their return. They were drawn upon a

encampment, to travel with us, he would leave some signs for thousand proofs of what intrepidity and perseverance may broad piece of wood, which he prepared with an axe. They were, achieve. The following is the description of some petrifying 1st, a tent struck, to intimate that a party had gone forward in a springs near Tirtápúri, on the river Sutlej, which is an affluent of of the party, and exhibiting, by their

dress and accoutrements, the

particular direction ; 2d, five rude figures, indicating the number the Indus.

rank or condition of each individual,-viz. a European chief, a “To the west of the town, and about a quarter of a mile distant, European servant, an Indian attendant, and the two Indians are the hot springs, forming one of the most extraordinary pheno- from the encampment; 3d, a curvilinear figure, with the two mena I have ever witnessed. From two mouths, about six inches figures, to intimate to the Indian's two sons that they were to

extremities of the curve pointing towards the hindermost of the in diameter, issue two streams, bubbling about four inches higher follow the party."

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