IMPLEMENTS REQUIRED.--The outfit for BOUNDARY LINES.—The first task to laying off and staking land consists of a which one addresses himself is establishchain, an axe, four or five flags (poles with ing the boundary lines of the orchard. If bits of cloth fastened at the top) and a the land has been regularly surveyed and plentiful supply of stakes. Stakes a foot staked and the orchard is located in one in length will do, but the work is nicer corner or along one side of the lot, the with laths three or four feet long, since measuring of the required distances each one can sight along a row of them without way to fix the orchard lines is an easy getting down upon the ground too close matter. But if the orchard happens to be for comfort. The flags are serviceable for in the middle of the farm, and there are designating corners and points to be seen no right angles already designated, the from a long distance. planter must first apply himself to THE PLANTING CHAIN.–The best and ESTABLISHING A RECTANGLE — which cheapest chain that I have found is one may be done as follows: Fix upon some made of annealed wires twisted about a line that runs parallel to the north-andcord and in common use as "clothes line south or the east-and-west line of your wire." To make it seryiceable for plant- place, or whatever road, field, fence, ing, fasten some large iron rings at the building or other object it is desired to ends for hand-holds and space the wire off have the orchard align. This we will call in the length decided upon for distances the base line. between trees by running a fine wire be G tween the strands and fastening a piece of cloth or a tag thereto. The length of the chain may depend somewhat upon the length of the rows to be planted, though two hundred feet is about a maximum limit for convenient handling. In spacing the wire off, it is a good plan to make the end spaces conform to the distance adopted for the margin of the orchard, then all intermediate spaces represent distances between trees. Thus, if the margin be twelve feet and the distances between trees twenty, the chain will be thus marked: FIG. 2-ESTABLISHING A RECTANGLE. Extend the base line A B any distance, FIG. 1-PLANTING CHAIN. say one hundred feet, to C. Mark the A to B, 12 feet. points E and C equal distances from B, B to C, 20 feet. say one hundred feet each. Then take a C to D, 20 feet. D to E, 20 feet. rope or chain longer than EBC (in this X to Y, 12 feet. case three hundred feet) with a knot or A chain of heavier wire than that I have tag exactly in the middle. Fasten one described is sometimes made in links end of the rope at E and the other end at joined with small rings, but this is ob- C; draw the rope out as shown in E D C. jectionable on account of kinking. Rope The knot or loop being in the middle will should never be employed, as the shrink- fall at D, giving a perpendicular to the ing and stretching while in use preclude base line A EBC. By standing at B and anything like accuracy. "sighting across B D, the point F may be A HELPER.–The work of measuring established at any required distance, givand staking requires two people; a smart ing a corner of the orchard ground, and boy will do for a helper. then, by measurement, the point G may also be fixed. You then have the bound. as the Washington Navel, Mediterranean ary of the orchard in the form of the rect- Sweet, Maltese Blood and St. Michael, angle A BFG. fifteen to twenty feet; standard treesDISTANCES APART.-Orange trees are seedlings and native buds-twenty to thirplanted from ten to thirty feet apart ac- ty feet. The distances most in vogue are cording to their habits of growth. Dwarfs Dwarfs-ten feet, like the Mandarin may be advantageously Semi-dwarfs-eighteen feet, placed ten feet apart; semi-dwarfs, such Standards twenty-four feet. CHAPTER IX. ARRANGING AN ORCHARD-THE SQUARE SYSTEM. THREE SYSTEMS.-There are three pop- How to STAKE BY THIS SYSTEM.--The ular systems for the arrangement of trees boundary lines of the orchard ground bein an orchard: ing already established, determine how 1st: The square system. much margin you will leave between the 2d: The quincunx system. outside rows of trees and the boundary 3d: The septuple system. lines. It is generally inexpedient to plant It is with the first named that this chap- trees directly upon the outer lines, as that ter deals. would bring the orchard flush with a road THE SQUARE SYSTEM. This is the ar- or fence or hedge, or with some neighrangement of trees in a quadrangular bor's property. The margin usually alform; i. e., so that four trees in two prox- lowed is from ten to twenty feet, accord. imate rows form a figure of a quadrangle, ing to the character of the trees and the thus: confidence one has in the public. * * * * FIG. 3. The general ouline of the orchard also becomes a quadrangle if the rows are of equal length and number throughout. The system thus carried out is illustrated in Fig 4. FIG. 5-CHECK-ROWS. Let us take, for illustration, a margin of twelve feet. Stake the points a, b, c and d at the corners twelye feet inside the boundary lines. Place two lines of stakes, a b, cd, along opposite sides, the distance be * * * * * FIG. 4-THE SQUARE SYSTEM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tween stakes being that determined upon irregularly leaning stakes and see how for the distance between rows. These confusing it is. lines, ab, cd, are known as check-rows. NUMBER OF TREES TO THE ACRE.- To Stretch the chain across the ground from compute the number of trees that can be a to d and stake the first row. planted on an acre by the square system: RULE.-1st, Multiply the distance apart * * * in the row by the distance between rows. This will give the number of square feet occupied by each tree. 2d, Divide 43,560, the number of square feet in an acre, by the number of square feet occupied by each tree, and the quotient will be the number of trees to the acre. EXAMPLE.-How many trees on an acre if planted 22 by 24 feet apart? 22 X 24 = 528. 43,560 -- 528 = 82,5. Ans., say 82 trees FIG. 6—THE FIRST ROW OF TREES. to the acre. This work of staking is most expedi. For convenience of reference the foltiously done by drawing the chain tense lowing table is given: and fastening it to the ground with an NUMBER OF TREES TO THE ACRE. iron pin at each end. Then yourself and Distance apart. Number. assistant, each with an armful of stakes, 10 x 10... . .............. 436 advance from your opposite stations, plac- 10 X 12. 363 ing a stake at each tag until you meet in 10 x 14..... 311 the middle of the ground. Then retrace 10 x 16. 272 12 x 12.. 302 your steps, stretch the chain for the next 12 x 14.... 259 row and repeat the operation. It is best 12 x 16. 227 202 to make the end tag of the chain tally with 14 x 14. 222 the pins in one check-row all the way 199 through. For example, if you adopt a b, 14 x 18. 173 Fig. 5, as the tally-row, do not be con- 14 x 20.. 14 X 156 16 x 16. cerned if the last tag at the other end of 16 x 18.. the chain does not always touch the pin 16 x in the row cd. Make your orchard 16 x 22. horia 18 x 18. straight on one side, and let the other side take care of itself. Should the tag and 18 18 x 22. pin on the off side fail to agree exactly, pull out the pin and make it conform to the tag. 20 x 22 20 x 24 REVIEWING THE WORK. – After the 21 x staking is completed it is a good plan to 22 x review the work by sighting along each 22 x 24 x 24. row, both up and down and across the orchard. Any inaccuracies may thus be 26 x 26.. detected in time for correction. When it 28 x 28.. comes to this operation of sighting, you 30 will find it an advantage if the stakes NOTE.-In these computations the frachave been set in the ground at a perpen- tion is dropped when amounting to onedicular. Don't question this statement half or less; when exceeding one-half until you cast your eye along a line of one is taken. ...... ............................. 50...... ..................................... CHAPTER X. THE QUINCUNX SYSTEM. QUINCUNX DEFINED.-Webster defines 3d, Quincunx is also employed in the the word quincunx as follows: “An ar- planting of seedling and budded orange rangement or disposition of things by trees in the same orchard, the four corners tives in a square, one being placed in the of the square being occupied by standard middle of the square ; especially an ar- trees and the middle points by budded rangement as of trees, in squares, consist varieties, which make a lesser growth. ing of five trees, one at each corner, and a How to STAKE ON THE QUINCUNX SYSfifth in the middle, this order being re- TEM.-Stake the two check rows the same peated indefinitely so as to form a regular as for square pianting except that you group, with rows, or ranks, running in double the number of stakes. For exvarious directions." ample, if the trees in the square are to be ILLUSTRATION.-The quincunx figure is twenty-four feet apart, with an extra quinthus illustrated: cunx tree in the middle, place the stakes in the check rows twelve feet apart. ARRANGING THE PLANTING CHAIN. To the planting chain attach an extra tag, FIG. 7-QUINCUNX. as X, Fig. 9, one-half the established disExtended in a regular group it becomes tance from the tag A. the following: X A B D 0 0 EXPLANATION.-Assuming that the established distance between trees is twentyfour feet, then from X to A is 12 feet; A to B 24 feet, etc. THE PROCESS OF STAKING.Stretch the chain for the first row, allowing the tag A (Fig. 9) to fall upon the pin a, Fig. 10. 50 * * * * * * * * FIG. 8-QUINCUNX GROUP. How QUINCUNX . PLANTING IS AVAILABLE.-This system of planting is resorted to mainly under the following conditions: 1st. By those who have orchards already planted on the square system, and who wish to increase the number of trees without enlarging the area. 2d. By those who wish to plant both citrus and deciduous trees in the same orchard with a view, generally, of cutting away the deciduous trees when the citrus come into bearing. With Quincunx planting they can at pleasure dispense with the middle tree in each group of five, and leave the remaining orchard in regular rows. FIG. 10—THE CHECK ROWS-QUINCUNX. For the second row, let the tag X fall upon the pin n. Proceed with the staking as usual, placing a pin at each tag in the chain. The result of changing the check tags A and X is to bring the trees alternately opposite each other, thus : FIG, 11-ALTERNATELY OPPOSITE. It is necessary to tally with the tag A in NUMBER OF TRRES TO THE ACRE.-TO each odd row, and with the tag X in each ascertain the number of trees to the acre even row, thus A, X, A, X; shifting the by the Quincunx system, observe the folchain back and forth like a shuttlecock. lowing: This will bring the orchard in regular RULE.-1st. Compute the number of trees quincunx order, as shown in Fig. 8. in the regular squares, as shown in Chapter PULL UP UNNECESSARY STAKES.—The Y. staker should be careful to pull up all the 2d. Multiply this result by two. intermediate stakes in the check rows, as 3d. From the product subtract the num. n, O, P, 9, 7, 8, etc., Fig. 10, since they are ber of intermediate (Quincuux) trees on two merely check stakes and do not denote sides of the orchard, plus 1. places for trees like the stakes a, b, c, etc. EXAMPLE.-How many trees on an acre The stakes marked o, Fig. 12, are the ones of ground planted Quincunx, the trees on to come out; their work is done as soon regular squares being twenty-four feet as the chain is stretched. apart? 0 * * * * * The table, Chapter X, shows that at twenty-four feet apart, Square system, there are 76 trees to the acre. o * * * * * 76 X 2= 152. 152_*(8+8+1)=135. Ans., 135 trees. FIG. 12—0, 0, 0, 0, SHOWING STAKES TO BE PULLED. ANOTHER RULE.-An approximate rule DISTANCE APART.-In planting quin- for finding the number of trees to an acre, cunx, it is advisable to have the trees in quincunx, is to ascertain the number of regular squares not less than twenty-four trees on the regular squares, and add 78 feet apart; and they may sometimes be per cent. thereto. placed thirty feet apart with advantage. *NOTE.-It is assumed that the acre of ground At twenty-four feet apart the distance takou for illustration is in a square form, and that from the trees on the square to the middle there are eight intermediate or Quincunx trees tree is about seventeen feet. On a scale of along each side. The (8 -|-8-1-1) represents the thirty feet, this intermediate distance be inside trees along two sides, plus one, as given in comes about twenty feet. the rule. CHAPTER XI. THE SEPTUPLE SYSTEM. A MISNOMER CORRECTED.-The system planting here confounded, and they of planting which I designate Septuple ought to be designated by different names.. has hitherto been known as Quincunx, It is manifest by the definition quoted in the term being applied almost indiscrimi- the preceding chapter that there is an oldnately to this system and the one de- established and well-defined system of scribed in the preceding chapter. Great planting known as Quincunx; that it is by confusion has resulted from this misappli. tives-four trees on a square and one in cation and conflict of terms, some writers the middle-as shown in the illustration.. even going to the length of calling the To this system, then, the title properly beSeptuple “the true Quincunx," and re- longs. If some other system is devised pudiating the other, or genuine Quincunx which comprehends the planting of trees system, altogether. This is error carried in an essentially different group-say by to the point of fanaticism, and offers no sevens instead of fives—it is clearly a misreasonable way out of the dilemma. nomer to call that system Quincunx also. Clearly there are two distinct systems of At the risk, then, of stirring up a hornet's |