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Seen him, uncumber'd with the venal tribe,
Smile without art, and win without a bribe.
Would he oblige me? let me only find,
He does not think me what he thinks mankind.
Come, come, at all I laugh, he laughs no doubt; 35
The only difference is, I dare laugh out.

F. Why, yes; with Scripture still you may be free; A horse-laugh, if you please, at honesty ;


That great

afterwards Lord Walpole, a set of his works in quarto, richly bound; which are now in the library at Wolterton.—Warton.

Ver. 31. Seen him, uncumber'd] These two verses were originally in the poem, though omitted in all the first editions.—Pope. Ver. 34. He does not think me) In former editions :

He thinks me poet of no venal kind.-Warton. Ver. 34. what he thinks mankind.] This request appears somewhat absurd : but not more so than the principle it refers to. Minister, it seems, thought all mankind rogues ; and that every one had his price. It was usually given as a proof of his penetration, and extensive knowledge of the world. Others perhaps would think it the mark of a bounded capacity ; which, from a few of Rochefoucault's maxims, and the corrupt practice of those he commonly conversed with, would thus boldly pronounce upon the character of his species. It is certain, that a Keeper of Newgate, who should make the same conclusion, would be heartily laughed at.-Warburton.

Just before Atterbury went into exile, a large fine dropped to him as Dean of Westminster, but he could have no right to receive it, without the seal being set to the lease in a full chapter. Sir Robert Walpole earnestly inquired if a chapter could not be held in the Tower, that the Bishop might receive the benefit of this fine. A chapter was accordingly there held, and the Bishop received a thousand pounds for his share of the fine. This anecdote, which is well authenticated, does great credit to the liberality and good temper of Sir Robert Walpole.-Warton.

The circumstance, concerning which so much has been said, that Sir Robert considered every one as equally venal, and that all had their price, is satisfactorily explained by Mr. Coxe :

“ Although it is not possible to justify him entirely, yet this part of his conduct has been greatly exaggerated. The political axiom attributed to him, that all men have their price, and which has been so often repeated in verse and prose, was perverted by leaving out the word those. Flowery oratory he despised ; he ascribed to the interested views of themselves or their relatives, the declaration of the pretended Patriots, of whom he said : • All those men have their price ;' and in the event many of them justified his observations.” Memoirs of Sir R. W., p. 250.Bowles.

Ver. 37. Why, yes ; with Scripture, &c.] A scribbler, whose only chance for reputation is the falling in with the fashion, is apt to employ this infamous expedient for the preservation of a transitory name.

But a true genius could not do a foolisher thing, or sooner defeat his own aim. The

| From Lord Orford, and the late Lord John Cavendish.-Bowles.



A joke on JEKYL, or some odd Old Whig
Who never changed his principle, or wig:
A patriot is a fool in every age,
Whom all Lord Chamberlains allow the stage:
These nothing hurts; they keep their fashion still,
And wear their strange old virtue as they will.
If any ask


“ Who's the man so near
His prince, that writes in verse, and has his ear?”
Why, answer, LYTTELTON, and I'll engage
The worthy youth shall ne'er be in a rage :
But were his verses vile, his whisper base,
You'd quickly find him in Lord Fanny's case.
Sejanus, Wolsey, hurt not honest FLEURY,
But well may put some statesmen in a fury.




sage Boileau used to say on this occasion : “ Une ouvrage sévère peut bien plaire aux libertins ; mais une ouvrage trop libre ne plaira jamais aux personnes sévères."-Warburton.

Ver. 37. Why, yes ; with Scripture still you may be free ;] Thus the Man, commonly called Mother Osborne, (who was in the Minister's pay, and wrote Coffee-house Journals,) for one Paper in behalf of Sir Robert, had frequently two against J. C.-Warburton.

Ver. 39. A joke on Jekyl,] Sir Joseph Jekyl, Master of the Rolls, true Whig in his principles, and a man of the utmost probity. He sometimes voted against the Court, which drew upon him the laugh here described of one who bestowed it equally upon religion and honesty. He died a few months after the publication of this Poem.- Pope.

Ver. 47. Why, answer, LYTTELTON,] George Lyttelton, Secretary to the Prince of Wales, distinguished both for his writings and speeches in the spirit of liberty:-Pope. Ver. 51. In the first edition :

Ægysthus, Verres, hurt not honest Fleury. Ver. 51. Sejanus,] This profligate Minister prevailed on the Senate to order a book of Crematius Cordus, in praise of Brutus and Cassius, to be burnt. This prohibition naturally increased the circulation of the work. “ Libros cremandos,” says Tacitus,“ censuere patres ; sed manserunt occultati, etenim punitis ingeniis, gliscit auctoritas.” “The punishing of wits enhances their authority,” says Lord Bacon ; “ and a forbidden writing is thought to be a certain spark of truth, that flies up in the faces of them who seek to tread it out." _Warton.

Ver. 51. Sejanus, Wolsey,] The one the wicked minister of Tiberius; the other, of Henry VIII. The writers against the Court usually bestowed these and other odious names on the Minister, without distinction, and in the most injurious manner. See Dial. II. ver. 137.-Pope.

Ver. 51. FLEURY,] Cardinal ; and Minister to Louis XV. It was a patriot-fashion, at that time, to cry up his wisdom and honesty.--Pope.

Ver. 51. honest FLEURY,] Fontenelle, who had been acquainted with the Cardinal before his ministry, visiting him and finding him in his usual

Laugh then at any, but at fools or foes ; These you but anger, and you mend not those. Laugh at your friends, and if your friends are sore, 55 So much the better, you may laugh the more. To vice and folly to confine the jest, Sets half the world, God knows, against the rest ; Did not the sneer of more impartial men At sense and virtue, balance all again.

60 Judicious wits spread wide the ridicule, And charitably comfort knave and fool.

P. Dear Sir, forgive the prejudice of youth: Adieu distinction, satire, warmth, and truth! Come, harmless characters that no one hit;

05 Come, Henley's oratory, Osborn's wit! The honey dropping from Favonio's tongue, The flowers of Bubo, and the flow of Y-ng! The gracious dew of pulpit eloquence, And all the well-whipp'd cream of courtly sense,



serenity and gaiety of temper, said to him : "Is is possible that your Eminence still continues to be happy ?” The short billets which the Cardinal wrote to Fontenelle, and which are preserved in the 11th volume of his works, are full of wit, elegance, and pleasantry.

A curious account is given of the rise and fortunes of Cardinal Fleury, in the first volume of St. Simon's Memoirs.-Warton.

Ver. 66. HenleyOsborn] See them in their places in the Dunciad.Pope.

Ver. 68. The flowers of Bubo, and the flow of Yếng!] Sir William Young. We cannot, now, conceive the reason of Pope's coupling so constantly, as he does, the names of Bubo and Sir William Young. We have

“ The first lampoon, Sir Will or Bubo makes." I have thought it possible he might here mean Dr. Young, to whom Doddington (Bubo) was a kind and constant friend.-Bowles.

Ver. 69. The gracious dew] Alludes to some Court sermons, and florid panegyrical speeches ; particularly one very full of puerilities and flatteries ; which afterwards got into an address in the same pretty style ; and was lastly served up in an Epitaph, between Latin and English, published by its author.-Pope.

Ver. 69. The gracious dew of pulpit eloquence,] Our moral Bard was no great adept in theology, nor did he enter into the depths of pulpit eloquence, This rendered his judgment of things, on certain occasions, but slight and superficial. It is plain here he gibeth at this master-stroke of pulpit eloquence : but Master Doctor Thomas Playfere might have taught him better. This eminent Court Divine, in his Spital sermon, preached in the

That first was H-vy's, F_'s next, and then
The S-te's, and then H-vy's once again.
O come, that easy, Ciceronian style,
So Latin, yet so English all the while,
As, though the pride of Middleton and Bland,
All boys may read, and girls may understand !



them weep:

year 1595, layeth open the whole mystery. “ The voice of a preacher (saith he, himselfe a powerful preacher,) ought to be the voice of a Crier, which should not pipe to make the people dance, but mourne to make

Hence it is, that in the oulde law, none that was blinde, or had anie blemishe in his eye, might serve at the aulter ; because for that impediment in his eye he could not well shew his inwarde sorrowing by his outward weeping. And when they offered up their first-borne, who was ordinarily in every family their prieste, or their preacher, they offered also with him a paire of turtle-doves or two young pigeons. That paire of turtle-doves did signify a paire of mournfull eyes : those two younge pigeons did signifie likewise two weeping eyes : and at that offering they prayed for their first-borne, that afterwards he might have such eyes himselfe. For indeed, as Austin witnesseth, THERE IS MORE GOOD TO BE DONE with sighing than with speaking, with weeping than with words. Plus gemitibus quam sermonibus, plus fletu quam affatu.” SCRIBL.- Warburton.

Ver. 73. O come, that easy, Ciceronian style,] Dr. Bland, of Eton, was a very bad writer, Dr. Middleton a remarkable good one ; perhaps our best : but he was the friend of Pope's enemy, Lord Hervey : hinc illæ lachrymæ ! - Bennet.

Ver. 75. pride of Middleton] The life of Tully, the most important of his works, procured Dr. Middleton a great reputation, and a great sum of money, which he generously gave to his nieces. It is a most pleasing and useful work, and gives a comprehensive view of a most interesting period in the Roman history, and of the characters principally concerned in those important events. It may be worth observing, that he is much indebted, without acknowledging it, to a curious book little known, entitled, G. Bellendini, Scoti, de Tribus Luminibus Romanorum, Libri 16. Parisiis. Apud Tassanum du Bray: 1634, folio ; dedicated to King Charles. It comprehends a history of Rome from the foundation of the city to the time of Augustus, drawn up in the very words of Cicero, without any alteration of any expression. In this book Middleton found every part of Cicero's own history in his own words, and his works arranged in chronological order, without farther trouble. The impression of this work being shipped for England, was lost in the vessel, which was cast away, and only a few copies remained that had been left in France. I venture to say, that the style of Middleton, which is commonly esteemed very pure, is blemished with many vulgar and cant terms ; such as,

“ Pompey had a month's mind; on that score; these advances ; this squeamishness,&c. He has not been successful in the translations of those many Epistles of Tully which he has inserted; which, however curious, yet break the thread of the narration. Mongault and Melmoth have far exceeded him in their excellent translations of those pieces.—Warton.

The book mentioned by Warton, Bellendenus, has been edited by a profound scholar, and eloquent writer, Dr. Samuel Parr, whose animated preface, &c. is in the hands of every scholar. He speaks with a warmth

Then might I sing, without the least offence,
And all I sung should be the nation's sense ;
Or teach the melancholy Muse to mourn,
Hang the sad verse on CAROLINA's urn,
And hail her passage to the realms of rest,
All parts perform’d, and all her children bless'd !



that does honour to his heart, respecting Dr. Middleton's conduct, in not avowing to whom he was so much indebted.-Bowles.

Ver. 75. and Bland] He had been master of Eton College, and a friend of Sir Robert Walpole. He translated into Latin with much purity and elegance, the Soliloquy of Cato in the beginning of the fifth act of that Tragedy.- Warton.

Ver. 76. All boys may read, and girls may understand !] i. e. full of school phrases and Anglicisms.-Warburton.

Ver. 78. nation's sense ;] The cant of politics at that time.- Warburton. Ver. 80. CAROLINA] Queen Consort to King George II. She died in 1737. Her death gave occasion, as is observed above, to many indiscreet and mean performances, unworthy of her memory, whose last moments manifested the utmost courage and resolution.-Pope.

Ver. 81. And hail her passage to the realms of rest,] Dryden has a passage similar to the former couplet in his Absalom and Achitophel, part i.

Or fled she with his life, and left this verse

To hang on her departed patron's hearse ? And a verse resembling the last of this quotation, a little earlier in the same poem :

All parts fulfilld of subject, and of son : as Cowley also, on the death of the Earl of Balcarras :

Perform'd all parts of virtue's vigorous life.-Wakefield. Ver. 82. and all her children bless'd!] No subtle commentary can torture these words to mean any thing but the most poignant sarcasm on the behaviour of this great personage to her son on her death-bed. severe copy of verses was circulated at the time, said to be written by Lord Chesterfield, which ended thus :

"And unforgiving, unforgiven died!" So that our author's own note is at variance with his text, as is a letter written to Mr. Allen.-Warton.

Ver. 82. all her children bless'd!] Her memory has been vindicated in the most satisfactory manner by Mr. Coxe :

“ The enemies of Queen Caroline have represented her as being of an unforgiving temper ; and even reproached her with want of maternal tenderness. It was maliciously suggested, that she fomented the misunderstanding between the King and the Prince of Wales ; but, on the contrary, she exerted her utmost influence to abate the petulance of the Son, and the irritability of the Father.

“ The tongue of slander has even reproached her with maintaining her implacability to the hour of her death, and refusing her pardon to the Prince, who had humbly requested to receive her blessing, To this imputation Lord Chesterfield'alludes, in a copy of verses circulated at that time : “ And unforgiving, unforgiven dies !"

[Pope VOL. V.


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