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applause and despise, the noiseless waves and closing skies; sighs, fantasy, wisdom, and business.

The second sound of 2 is in the following words: Adhesion to ambro-sial inclo-sures to treasures and pleasures, take ho-siers, bra-zier's crosiers, brasions and treasures, for corrosions and explosions, illusions, confusions, conclusions, and intrusions.

To make the second sound of z the teeth meet firmly together, the lips are thrown out, while the tip of the tongue rests at the base of the lower front teeth, bending the tongue up so as to completely line the upper and lower front teeth, scarcely touching them. The vocalized breath is forced through the small aperture and between the teeth. The correlative of this sound is sh, made in the same way, but with unvocalized breath.

K takes one pure aspirate-sound, which has received attention under the letter c. Its vocal equivalent is g hard. Crickets, keen, kill’d, rebuke; quaker, quirk’d, work’d, cork’d, york’d, look'd and smok’d, provok'd and invok’d, joked, poked, and croak’d.

G hard and the vowel e are made with the organs in the same position. In the vowel-sound the vocalized breath passes out evenly without interruption, while in making the subvowel g and the aspirate k the expulsion is sudden and forcible.

T takes two sounds, its real one, which is an aspirate, and its vocal correlative d. To make it the tongue is first pressed tightly against the roof of the mouth and suddenly withdrawn, expelling the breath forcibly. Tilt, tit-tat, with a rat-tat-tat.

D is made in the same way. With the vocalized breath d frequently takes the sound of t.

EXERCISE IN JAW-BREAKERS.—Thou wreath’d'st and muzzl'd'st the farfetched ox, and imprison'd'st in the volcanic mountains of Pop-o-cat-a-petl in Cot-o-pax-i. Thou prob’d'st my rack'd ribs. Thou trif’d’st with his acts, and thou black'n'st and contaminated'st with his filch'd character. Thou lov'd'st the elves when thou heard'st and quick’n’d'st my heart's tuneful harps. Thou wagg’dst thy propp'd-up head, because thou thrustdst three hundred and thirty-three thistles through the thick of that thumb that thou cur'dst of the barbed shafts.



ch, sh, gh, ph, th, wh.

B is a restrained vocal sound, made precisely as p is, only the vocal breath is thrown up against the lips, producing a swallowed sound. Compress the lips tightly and try to speak ub. Jacob hob-nob'd with a cobbler, dabbled in ribbons, bonbons, berries, and cabbage; the baboon baby babbld and gabbl'd its gibberish with a rub-a-dub-dub.

D is alsð a restrained vocal sound, explained under the aspirate t. It frequently takes the sound of t at the end of words. He escap'd vex'd and watch'd the spic'd food with arch'd brow; tripp'd his crisp'd feet; dash’d, smash’d, jump'd, and scratch'd like a tax'd turkey, burn'd and crisp'd.

G takes three sounds. Its hard sound, and the manner of making it, was explained when treating of the letter c. It sometimes borrows the second sound of Z, as in rouge. It also becomes the equivalent of j in many words; to make which will be explained when treating of that letter.

Hard sound of G.-A giddy gander got a cigar and gave it to a gangrene beggar. Goggles growled and giggled at the giddy girls, gloated over the gruel, till a ghastly ghost got good game and gave glass goggles.

G as J.-A giant in Ghent, a genuine genius for gems and original magic, exaggerated the genealogy of Georgius, the logical sergeant, germinating genteel gingerbread just as the aborigines abjured Geneva, Genoa, and Germany.

When g takes the sound of z, it occurs generally in French words not Anglicised.

J takes one sound, which is semi-vowel ; in reality it is a combination of the subvowel d and the aspirate ch, as in church. The tongue is thrown up to obstruct the voice-sound, as in producing the d sound, and the forcible aspirate explosion following gives the sound of ch referred to. Endeavor to speak quickly the syllable jup without sounding the p, and the sound of j will be perfectly rendered. June, July, Judith; judge and Judaism joined judgment; joyfully jolting jugs and justice; juvenile jurymen; Jupiter; Julian joined juice and julep in juxtaposition. L takes one uniform sound; to make which the mouth is


and the lips drawn back and in at the corners; the tongue is placed firmly against the front palate as in the sound of d, and held there; while the vocalized breath is forced out from the sides of the tongue through the open mouth. In this position of the organ endeavor to speak the syllable eel. Lord Lemuel Lyall loved a lasslorn lady, luckless, languid, and luxurious; she with blissful dalliance genteelly listened to his luckless, lazy, illogical lunacy. A lying, lyrical, lymphatic lynch, lynx-eyed and lumpish. The lawless law-maker lauded and laughed at the lapidary.

M has one sound, which is partly mouth and partly nasal; i. e., the voice-sound is thrown up against the firmly closed lips, as in the sound of b, but is thrown back and out through the nose. Mail maim'd the main-mast, mostly making malignant music. Majestical mediocrity meditates mean mechanical measure, modified by meek menace. Merciful mercurial metamorphosis mastered the methodistic meter.

N takes one sound, which is also partly mouth and partly nasal; but the vocal breath is stopped by the tongue being firmly placed against the roof of the mouth, as when making the sounds of d and e, and thrown back through the nasal passage. Nineteen nippers, nonconcurrent, non-essential, and nonsensically nice, nipped noisily at ninepins; a novel novice, notable with nosegays, nourished naughty nurslings in nymph-like nudity.

N before g and k becomes a purely nasal sound. The end of the tongue is placed against the lower front teeth, as in producing the sound of k and g hard, while the back part is thrown up so as to prevent any sound from passing out through the mouth, forcing it all through the nose. Ranting, banking, cranking, singing, sighing, smiling, dying, crying, flying, flanking, winking, waking, sleeping.

R.–To make the first sound of r the teeth are nearly closed, the lips thrown out, and the tongue drawn back and up. In this position of the organs try to speak the syllable er, and the desired sound will be obtained. When r occurs after a vowel it takes this smooth sound. Floor, more, word, sword, gourd.

The second sound of r is rough or trilled. To make it the organs are in the same position as when required to produce the smooth sound; but a more forcible expulsion of vocal air becomes necessary to cause the vibration of the tongue required to produce this trill, or rolling sound.

Trill the r. The romping, ragged rascal, rash, raspy, reaching, rearing, and recreant, roamed in riotous revolt. Ribaldry, reviving rhapsody, rained rich rockets, riddles, ribbons, and rocks. The royal

, roofless rooster roared in the rookery, and the rough ruffian ruined the Rubicon.

Note.—Many persons have a very affected and pernicious habit of making the letter r silent in all the words they use. For barn they say bahn; for farm, fahm; for harm, hahm, etc. Some have a still more exquisite fancy, and pronounce bird as though spelled bu-yed, sounding the i like short u; first, fu-yest; firs, fu-ys, etc.

V.—This sound is made in the same manner as is f, but with vocal breath. Vainglorious vagabonds value valentines with voluptuous vanity. Vampires, vapors, and varnish vanish and vent venom, viperous, virile, and valid:

W has two sounds. The first is a close vowel-sound of oo, as in ooze, preceded by a slight aspirate, giving a wavy sound that oo does not possess.

It takes this sound before vowels. The warden washed the wall, wisely warming the water with wonderful wood, wormy and worthless.

The second sound is a pure aspirate. To make it place the lips as though you were going to whistle, blowing a short breath through the lips. It usually takes this sound before h. Which, whiggish, what, whimsical, whip-stock, whooping, whistle.

X (g 2, k 8) is in fact a character representing four sounds. It takes two sounds, a subvocal and an aspirate, both of which are a union of two sounds. The subvocal takes the sound of g hard and of 2 (92), while the aspirates (k 8) are but the correlatives. As a particular description of the manner of making these sounds has been already given, it will only be necessary to unite them-gz, subvowels; k 8, aspirates. At the beginning of words x takes the sound of z.

In such cases it is a vocal sound, and the g sound is silent; as Xenia, Xenophon. Should the real sound of the letter be pronounced, it would be exactly as though spelled Gzenophon, Gzenia, having the same sound that it does in exist, exile. It will be well to remember this analysis to prevent any stumbling.

When x is the first letter of the word the g sound is silent, and the words pronounced as though written Zenia, Zenophon. The xanthic xystus, with xylotile Xylopia, received a xylographer with xylites xylophilan. Xerxes and Xenophon from Xenia.

Words in which x takes the subvowel-sound: Exalt the exactor and exaggerate the examination with exactitude, and exasperate the examiner with exotic exultation.

It takes the ks sound in the following: Extort the exquisite expert and extinguish the expectant explainer; extirpate the extorter in extemporal exegesis.

Such words as the following sound as though spelled with the word commencing with the letter x-play upon xes: Charles X., x-king of France, was xtravagantly xtolld, but is xceedingly xecrated. He xperienced xtraordinary xcellences; he was xcellent in xternals, but xtrinsic in xtasy; he was xtatic in xpression, xtreme in xcitement, and xtraordinary in xtempore xpression. He was xpatriated for his xcesses, and to xpiate his xtravagance was xcluded, and xpired in xpulsion.


The manner of producing this sound was described under the letter j, of which it is the aspirate correspondent. It takes the sound of sh in some words, as in chaise. In words derived from the ancient languages ch is generally hard, like k; as, chemistry, Chaldee, Melchisedec. If we reverse the order of this combination in its soft sound, and prolong the c, we get a certain significant expression of hate and disgust. Snakes and geese use this sound when irritated or alarmed; and even men have been known to express themselves by a vigorous use of these sounds. Persons, however, who hiss this language seem to know intuitively how to utter it without any explanation here. But to return and discuss the regular English sound of this digraph. There is a very useful agent, for the convenience of mankind, which has been invented since snakes, geese, and men were created. If you wish to hear how clearly and rapidly it utters this sound listen to the locomotive when it is just put in motion-ch, ch, ch, ch, ch, etc.

Sh has also been described, as it is the aspirate correlative of the second sound of z.

Ph usually takes the sound of f-Phil-o-mel, Phi-pher. According to some lexicographers, in the words nephew and Stephens, they take the sound of v. In some words the h is silent-naph-tha.

Gh (ough). This combination can hardly be called a digraph, as it has no sound specifically its own. At the beginning of words the h is silent, and at the end of words both letters are generally silent. In some words it takes the sound of f, as in laugh and cough. In others, when preceded by ou, it takes the sound of w, as in furloughthe ugh is silent. In through it takes the close sound of 00; and in thorough the entire ough is sounded like short u. Altogether it is a tough combination of letters to rely upon, but perhaps a good arrangement for

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