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jugs and justice; juvenile jurymen; Jupiter; Julian joined juice and julep in juxtaposition.

L takes one uniform sound; to make which the mouth is open, and the lips drawn back and in at the corners; the tongue is placed firmly against the front palate as in the sound of d, and held there; while the vocalized breath is forced out from the sides of the tongue through the

open mouth. In this position of the organ endeavor to speak the syllable eel. Lord Lemuel Lyall loved a lasslorn lady, luckless, languid, and luxurious; she with blissful dalliance genteelly listened to his luckless, lazy, illogical lunacy. A lying, lyrical, lymphatic lynch, lynx-eyed and lumpish. The lawless law-maker lauded and laughed at the lapidary.

M has one sound, which is partly mouth and partly nasal; i. e., the voice-sound is thrown up against the firmly closed lips, as in the sound of b, but is thrown back and out through the nose. Mail maim'd the main-mast, mostly making malignant music. Majestical mediocrity meditates mean mechanical measure, modified by meek menace. Merciful mercurial metamorphosis mastered the methodistic meter.

N takes one sound, which is also partly mouth and partly nasal; but the vocal breath is stopped by the tongue being firmly placed against the roof of the mouth, as when making the sounds of d and e, and thrown back through the nasal passage. Nineteen nippers, nonconcurrent, non-essential, and nonsensically nice, nipped noisily at ninepins; a novel novice, notable with nosegays, nourished naughty nurslings in nymph-like nudity. N before g and k becomes a purely nasal sound. The end of the

g tongue is placed against the lower front teeth, as in producing the sound of k and g hard, while the back part is thrown up so as to prevent any sound from passing out through the mouth, forcing it all through the nose. Ranting, banking, cranking, singing, sighing, smiling, dying, crying, flying, flanking, winking, waking, sleeping.

R.–To make the first sound of r the teeth are nearly closed, the lips thrown out, and the tongue drawn back and up. In this position of the organs try to speak the syllable er, and the desired sound will be obtained. When r occurs after a vowel it takes this smooth sound. Floor, more, word, sword, gourd.

The second sound of r is rough or trilled. To make it the organs are in the same position as when required to produce the smooth sound; but a more forcible expulsion of vocal air becomes necessary to cause the vibration of the tongue required to produce this trill, or rolling sound.

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Trill the r. The romping, ragged rascal, rash, raspy, reaching, rearing, and recreant, roamed in riotous revolt. Ribaldry, reviving rhapsody, rained rich rockets, riddles, ribbons, and rocks. The royal

, roofless rooster roared in the rookery, and the rough ruffian ruined the Rubicon.

Note.—Many persons have a very affected and pernicious habit of making the letter r silent in all the words they use. For barn they say bahn; for farm, fahm; for harm, hahm, etc. Some have a still more exquisite fancy, and pronounce bird as though spelled bu-yed, sounding the i like short u; first, fu-yest; firs, fu-ys, etc.

V.—This sound is made in the same manner as is f, but with vocal breath. Vainglorious vagabonds value valentines with voluptuous vanity. Vampires, vapors, and varnish vanish and vent venom, viperous, virile, and valid:

W has two sounds. The first is a close vowel-sound of oo, as in ooze, preceded by a slight aspirate, giving a wavy sound that oo does not possess.

It takes this sound before vowels. The warden washed the wall, wisely warming the water with wonderful wood, wormy and worthless.

The second sound is a pure aspirate. To make it place the lips as though you were going to whistle, blowing a short breath through the lips. It usually takes this sound before h. Which, whiggish, what, whimsical, whip-stock, whooping, whistle.

X (g 2, k 8) is in fact a character representing four sounds. It takes two sounds, a subvocal and an aspirate, both of which are a union of two sounds. The subvocal takes the sound of g hard and of 2 (92), while the aspirates (k 8) are but the correlatives. As a particular description of the manner of making these sounds has been already given, it will only be necessary to unite them-gz, subvowels; k 8, aspirates. At the beginning of words x takes the sound of z.

In such cases it is a vocal sound, and the g sound is silent; as Xenia, Xenophon. Should the real sound of the letter be pronounced, it would be exactly as though spelled Gzenophon, Gzenia, having the same sound that it does in exist, exile. It will be well to remember this analysis to prevent any stumbling.

When x is the first letter of the word the g sound is silent, and the words pronounced as though written Zenia, Zenophon. The xanthic xystus, with xylotile Xylopia, received a xylographer with xylites xylophilan. Xerxes and Xenophon from Xenia.

Words in which x takes the subvowel-sound: Exalt the exactor and exaggerate the examination with exactitude, and exasperate the examiner with exotic exultation.

It takes the ks sound in the following: Extort the exquisite expert and extinguish the expectant explainer; extirpate the extorter in extemporal exegesis.

Such words as the following sound as though spelled with the word commencing with the letter x-play upon xes: Charles X., x-king of France, was xtravagantly xtolld, but is xceedingly xecrated. He xperienced xtraordinary xcellences; he was xcellent in xternals, but xtrinsic in xtasy; he was xtatic in xpression, xtreme in xcitement, and xtraordinary in xtempore xpression. He was xpatriated for his xcesses, and to xpiate his xtravagance was xcluded, and xpired in xpulsion.

DIGRAPHS. Ch.—

The manner of producing this sound was described under the letter j, of which it is the aspirate correspondent. It takes the sound of sh in some words, as in chaise. In words derived from the ancient languages ch is generally hard, like k; as, chemistry, Chaldee, Melchisedec. If we reverse the order of this combination in its soft sound, and prolong the c, we get a certain significant expression of hate and disgust. Snakes and geese use this sound when irritated or alarmed; and even men have been known to express themselves by a vigorous use of these sounds. Persons, however, who hiss this language seem to know intuitively how to utter it without any explanation here. But to return and discuss the regular English sound of this digraph. There is a very useful agent, for the convenience of mankind, which has been invented since snakes, geese, and men were created. If you wish to hear how clearly and rapidly it utters this sound listen to the locomotive when it is just put in motion-ch, ch, ch, ch, ch, etc.

Sh has also been described, as it is the aspirate correlative of the second sound of z.

Ph usually takes the sound of f-Phil-o-mel, Phi-pher. According to some lexicographers, in the words nephew and Stephens, they take the sound of v. In some words the h is silent-naph-tha.

Gh (ough). This combination can hardly be called a digraph, as it has no sound specifically its own. At the beginning of words the h is silent, and at the end of words both letters are generally silent. In some words it takes the sound of f, as in laugh and cough. In others, when preceded by ou, it takes the sound of w, as in furloughthe ugh is silent. In through it takes the close sound of 00; and in thorough the entire ough is sounded like short u. Altogether it is a tough combination of letters to rely upon, but perhaps a good arrangement for suggesting a guess; or, what would be more satisfactory perhaps, it gives one the freedom of choice when it occurs in proper names. Greenough, Clough, Vaughn, Brough, Brougham.

Th has its two sounds, aspirate and voice. These sounds are made by placing the end of the tongue against the edge of the upper front teeth. To make the aspirate-sound, as in thin, the breath is simply blown through. In the vocal sound, as in this, the vocal breath is blown through, making a buzzing sound. This, those, that, them, thine.

Of wh we have already treated under the letter w.

CHAPTER XI.

ARTICULATION-GYMNASTICS OF THE VOICE-EXERCISES FOR RUNNING THE

GAUNTLET_THE “LEADER" EXERCISE.

The great obstacle to articulation lies in the pupil not being able to articulate aspirate and subvowel-sounds, particularly when they come together in one syllable, or follow each other in different syllables. Articulation generally is so poor that the following table is inserted for the purpose of affording gymnastic exercises. Let no one neglect this practice. Let them be pronounced and spelled. In classes, one pupil may pronounce and the next one spell, and the speller pronounce the next word for spelling, and so on around the class. Each one will then discover in what condition his or her articulating powers are.

Remember, exactness and grace go together in other gymnastic exercises—fencing, riding, boxing—so do not slight these nobler gymnastics of the voice.

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EXERCISES FOR ARTICULATION. A-rm, a-rm'd, a-rms, a-rm'st, a-rm'd'st; bu-rn, bu-rn'd, bu-rnt, u-rns, ea-rn'st, ea-rn'd' st; ha-rp, ha-rp'd, ha-rps; hea-rse, fea-ro'st, bu-rsts; hea-rt, hea-rts; hu-rt'st; or-b'd, pro-b'dst; a-ble, trou-bl'd, trou-bl'd'st, trou-bles, trou-bl'st; br-and; ri-bs, rib-o'st; pro-bes.

A thousand shrieks for hopeless mercy call. It was the severest storm of the season, but the masts stood through the gale.

Can-dle, han-dl'd, can-dles, fon-dl'st; dr-ove; dee-ds; brea-dth, brea-dths; ree-fd, ree-f d'st; fl-ame, tri-fl'd, tri-ft'st, tri-fles; fr-ame; lau-ghs, lau-gh'st;

wa-ft, wa-fts, wa-ft'st; cli-ff's; brag-ged, brag-g'd'st; gl-ow, hag-gled, man-gles, man-gl'st; gr-ave; ba-ck'd; un-cle, tin-kld, truc-kles, truc-kl'st, truc-kl'd st; blac-ken, blac-ken'd, blac-kens, blac-ken'st, blac-ken'd'st; cr-oney; thin-ks, thin-k'st; e-lbe, bu-lb'd, bu-lbs; ho-ld, ho-lds, ho-ld st; e-lf, e-lfs, de-lft ware; bu-lge; mi-lk, mi-lk'd, si-lks, mu-lct, mu-lcts; e-lm, whe-lm'd, whe-lms; fa-ll'n.

"Fair ladies mask'd are roses in their buds,
Dismask'd their damask sweet commixture shown,

Are angels veiling clouds, or roses blown.” His acts being seven ages. The acts of the apostles. This act more than all other acts of the legislature laid the axe at the root of the evil. On either side an ocean exists. On neither side a notion exists. When Ajax strives some rock’s vast weight to throw. Then rustling, crackling, crashing thunder down. The magistrates ought to prove the charge. The magistrates sought to prove the charge.

Nature can only lay the foundation; the superstructure, with all its ornaments, is the work of education. Although those noble gifts of mind, without which no one can become an eloquent speaker, are from nature's God, yet articulation, the elements, quantity, etc., are to be learned.

He proposed an amicable adjustment of all difficulties. We must fight it through. It must be so. After the most straitest sect. This was the most unkindest cut.

Hea-lth, hea-Iths; ento-mb'd; Hu-mph-rey; attempt, atte-mpts; to-mbs, ento-mb'st; a-nd, ba-nds, se-nd'st; ra-nge, ra-ng'd; thi-nk, thi-nks, thi-nk'st; se-nt, wa-nt' st, wa-nts; fi-ns; fli-nch, Ali-nch'd; wi-nc'd; pi-gs, wa-g'st; hed-ged; ha-ng' d; so-ngs; stre-ngth, stre-ngths; pl-uck, rip-pled, rip-ples, rip-pl' st; pr-ay; cli-ps, ni-p’st; he-rb, ba-rb’d, he-rbs, ba-rb’st, ba-rb’dst; ba-rd, ba-rds, hea-rd st; su-rf, wha-rf'd; bu-rgh, bu-rghs; ba-rge, u-rg'd; ha-rk, ba-rk'd, a-rcs, ba-rk'st, ba-rk'd st; sna-rl, hu-rld, sna-rls, sna-rl'st, sna-rld'st.

By indefatigable study and long-continued practice the renowned orators of antiquity became almost perfect in articulation. They were unwilling that even a single error should escape their lips. This is one of the great secrets of their immortality. They knew that the faculty of speech is the power of giving sounds to thought. They were correct in their views.

He was incapable of a mean or questionable action. He was amiable, respectable, formidable, unbearable, intolerable, unmanageable, terrible.

“An hour passed on the Turk awoke;

That bright dream was his last;
He woke_to hear his sentries shriek

"To arms! they come! the Greek! the Greek!!"

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Do not say

-the Turky woke; That bright dream wazis las; He woke to hear the sentry sriek

"Too arms! they come! the Greek the Greek!” Articulation is the cutting out and shaping, in a perfectly distinct and appropriate manner, with the organs of speech all the simple

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