Imagens das páginas

Jan. 23, 1837.)

Foreign Emigrants— Treasury Circular, &c.



another committee, and to a committee, too, of which Mr. CLAY presented the petition of sundry inhabi. Mr. B. was a member? How would this thing tell in tants of Wirtsborough, Sullivan county, New York, and, the newspapers, that the gentleman who moved to make as it was not long, be asked that it might be read. these inquiries should proceed to make them himself?

The document was accordingly read, and proved to Mr. KING, of Alabama, said this resolution passed be a kind of remonstrance, on the subject of Roman without attracting his attention, or else he would have Catholic emigrants to the country, brought in under the opposed its passage. If it was intended to impede the auspices of Popes, Cardinals, Bishops, &c. It insisted action of the committee, it would have done so effectual. on the impropriety and inexpediency of allowing so many !y. And if there was a real intention of obtaining the persons to enter the country whose practice and tenets information called for, it could not be obtained during were avowedly and directly hostile to our republican in. the session. He could see no practical gond to result stitutions, and especially prayed Congress to institute from its reference now to the Finance Committee. He commissions, in various parts of the country, to procure therefore called for a division of the question, and that information and report on the subject.

the motion for a simple discharge should first he tried. Mr. CLAY said some of the objects prayed for this The gentleman might then make such disposition as lie Government had no power to grant, however alarming thought proper of his resolution. to these good and religious people the evils complained

Mr. EWING said the subject of the resolution proper. of and the progress of pupacy might be. But there ly and exclusively belonged to the Finance Committee. was one object which Mr. C. thought might be a prop. He also had known nothing of the resolution since it was er subject of inquiry, being within the power of Con- first laid on the table till this morning. He thought gress; and that was a change in our laws of naturaliza- it better to divide the question, and leave the resolution tion. He therefore moved that the memorial be re

in the hands of the mover. ferred to the Judiciary Committee; and it was so refer. The question was then taken on discharging the comred.

mittee, and carried in the affirmative.

Mr. BENTON said he would here state to the whole THE TREASURY CIRCULAR.

Senate that he desired his resolution to be referred to Mr. WALKER, from the Committee on the Public the committee of which he was a member. It was ac. Lands, to whom the motion of Mr. Berton for an inqui. cordingly referred to the Finance Committee. ry into the conduct of the deposite banks, &c. was referred, moved that the above committee be discharged

PUBLIC LANDS. from the further consideration of said motion, and that it The Senate then proceeded to the special order of the be referred to the Committee on Finance.

day, which was the land bill, as amended by the CommitMr. BENTON said he thought it a grand joke that tee on the Public Lands. thr e or four days after a bill had been brought in by the The question being on so amending the bill as to re. Committee on the Public Lanıls, on the subject with quire a residence by the settler of but one year to get a which his motion was connected, after the occasion for tiile to his land, it was negatived: Yeas 12, nays 23. which that motion was presented had entirely gone by, Mr. GRUNDY then proposed to substitute a residence the gentleman should now propose to have the examina- of two years. The motion was supported by Messrs. tion proposed by the motion, and by another committee. WALKER, KING of Alabama, LINN, and TIPTON, He thought the Land Committee ought to have acted on and opposed by Mr. EWING, as being wholly inefficient the motion, or turned over the whole subject to another to the onject proposed. Mr. E. stated that he had a dif. committee,

ferent proposition to offer, which, as he supposed, would Mr. WALKER said that, inasmuch as the Committee secure the object of confining the sale of public lands to on the Public Lands had been arraigned before the Sen-actual settlers, and which he sent to the table to be print. ate by the mover of that resolution, ["motion,"] he ed. The printing was ordered; but the question being, hoped he would be pardoned for giving the reasons for in the mean while, taken on the amendment proposed by discharging the Committee on the Public Lands. That Mr. Grundy, it was carried: Yeas 27, nays 11. resolntion was not transmitted to the committee till some Mr. BENTON gave notice of an amendment he should time after the committee bad commenced considering hereafter offer; which was ordered to be printed. the subject of the Treasury order; o!, at least, it had not Mr. WALKER, from the Land Committee, proposed come simultaneously with the Treasury order to the sundry minor amendments, not touching the general prin. committee. It was, moreover, the opinion of the com.ciple of the bill. The whole of the various amendments mittee, that if they proceeded to act on the matter of were directed to be imbodied, and printed all together, the resolution, (Mr. BENTOx's,] there could be no ac. in their order; when the firther consideration of the bill tion by Congress this session, on the subject of the was made the order of the day for Monday next. Treasury order; and it was the desire of every member After transacting some other business, of the committee that such action should be had. It The Serate adjourned. would have consumed the time of the committee for months, and it would even have been necessary to carry the required examination into the recess of Congress.

MONDAY, JANUARY 23. Mr. W. said that, although he hai assented to the ref

PUBLIC LANDS. erence of the subject of the Treasury order to the Com After going through the usual morning business, mittee on the Public Lands, he had done so with the ut. The Senate proceeded to the special order of the most reluctance.

day, which was the bill to confine the sale of the public Mr. BENTON said the subject of the Treasury order land to actual settlers only. was referred to the Land Committee late on the evening Mr. WALKER, chairman of the Committee on the of the 11th inst., and his resolution was sent to that com. Public Lands, who has charge of the bill, expressed his mittee as early as it could be on the morning of the 12th. approbation of an amendment offered on Saturday by That resolution had also been laid on the table at the Mr. Ewing, and which provides that land entered, and very commencement of the proceedings on the Treasu- forfeited, by non-residence, under the bill, might be en. ry order, so that every one might see it. But if there tered by others who shall prove the fact of such non-regwas not then time to carry that resolution into effect, idence by the first occupant, and proposed to modify it why, at this late day, was it proposed to refer it to! by a provision that, wlien two or more persons should so


Marine Corps--Public Lands.

(Jan. 24, 1837.

claim the forfeited land, who inbabit the same quarter The bill now under consideration is the successor, not section, the preference shall be given to the first occu exactly legitimate, of one introduced by my colleague at pant; and that none of the others should get "foals," the commencement of the session, for limiting the sales (i.e. pre-emption rights, to be located on any land not of the public land to actual settlers. That plain, unpre. entered elsewhere.)

tending .proposition was what it professed to be, and In consequence of some objections to the term "float," nothing else; the title declared the object of the bill, and as unknown to the law and undefined, he agreed to waive though I thought the measure impracticable, I could not the latter clause entirely, as being, in substance, pro- but feel the justness of the motion, and the straight-forvided for in other parts of the bill. The residue of bis ward means proposed to effect the object. That bill was amendment to the amendment proposed by Mr. Ewing referred to the Committee on Public Lands, and we bave was then agreed to.

here, reported back, in its name and in its place, what is Mr. W. also proposed several other verbal amend now before us; and the title is a!l that is left, either of the ments; which were agreed to.

letter or spirit of the original bill. But, even this small Mr. TIPTON then moved an amendment, introducing relic of what the bill once was, if I divine ariglat, is des. thie principle of graduation, and providing that land re tined to be obliterated and destroyed. The title is not maining unsold for ten years should be sold for one dolo descriptive of the contents of the bill, nor is it sufficientlar arı acre; and if remaining for hifteen years, at seventy. ly magniloquent. When the bill arrives at such stage five cents the acre, with a proviso that not more than that it will be in order, we shall have a motion to amend 160 acres be sold to any one man; on which he asked it, and, if the motion prevail, it will become " A bill to the yeas and nays, and they were ordered by the Senate. arrest monopolies of the public lands," &c. &c. &c.;

Mr. EWING, thinking this a fit opportunity to go in the title is long and high sounding, and is to be found at to the general principles of the bill, and the subject of large in the journal of last year, and I will not now de. the public lands generally, addressed the Senaie in a tain the Senate by reading it. I will, however, endeavor speech which, wiib his consent, was interrupted by a to show, before I sit down, what name it really merits; motion for adjournment. The motior, having been sus. for I intend to discuss its provisions, not its title. pended for some previous motions for the printing of This debate has been freely interlarded with bigh dedocuments, prevailed.

nunciation against a class of our fellow-citizens called The Senate then adjourned.

"speculators"-men who purchase public land either

for subsequent sale, or that it may lie by, as an invest. TUESDAY, JANUARY 24.

ment of money to raise in value, and become a resource MARINE CORPS.

in after life, or an oui fit for their children. And I have Mr. PRESTON offered the following resolution; who denounce these " speculators” the most loudly and

observed, also, what is not a little remarkable, that those which was, hy consent, adopted: Resolved, That the Committee on Naval Affairs be in.

the most frequently, on this floor and elsewhere, are

those who understand them best, and who are themselves structed to inquire intu the construction of the act of the 30 h June, 1834, regulating the pay of the marine corps,

the most deeply engaged in the vocation which they by the Fourih Auditor, and into the propriety of any

thus condemn. This is generally, perhaps universally,

the case. This disinterestedness of gentlemen who confurther legislation thereon. Mr. PRESTON, when offering this resolution, re.

demn thus openly their own calling, and devise laws, marked that he understood the design of the above-na.

intended, as they say, to check and put it down, reminds med act was to put the pay of the marine corps on the

me of an incident in modern history worthy to be re

membered. same footing with that of the infantry of the army, The construction of the Fourth Auditor had made it lower,

When Lord Chancellor Bacon was convicted before contrary, he thought, to the design of Congress.

Parliament for receiving presents from suitors, which Mr. BUCHANAN (Mr. Preston having referred to

bore a very strong resemblance to bribes, and was re

moved from office, he was the foremost in proposing and him) said he had already given notice that he wished to introduce a bill to remedy the construction of the fourth keep off such temptation and sin in future, and most cer.

concocting measures wbich should thereafter effectually Auditor, and he was prevented from introducing it only by information that the Naval Committee of the other tainly protect the purity of the bench. It reminds me, House had reported a bill on the subject. He was, how. also, of a late occasion on which the gentleman from ever, gratified that Mr. P. bad turned his attention to

Virginia (Mr. Rives] near me was so decply impressed the subject.

with the aristocracy of the Senate-himself certainly not

the least aristocratic of its members--that he felt constrainPUBLIC LANDS.

ed to turn “States' evidence," or, perhaps, rather, "peo• The Senate then took up the bill to prohibit the sales ple's evidence," against the whole body, himself, of course, of the public lands, excepi to actual settlers, and in lim- inclusive, though I believe he did not suggest any remedy ited quantities.

for the enormily wlich be exposed. Now, this is all The question pending was on Mr. Tipton's amendright; and it is honorable; and it is unquestionably sin. ment, offered yesterday, to the first section of the bill, I take no exceptions to it, but merely notice it "that all lands that have been in the market ten years, among the passing incidents of the times. and remain unsold, shall be sold for seventy-five cents Now, sir, I will say a few words as to this class of in. an acre; and all that have five years, shall be disposed of dividuals who are so much the theme of discussion and at one dollar; provided that not more than one hundred of attack; anıl, that my opinion may have the more and sixty acres be sold to one purchaser.

weight, I can assure the Senate that I am neither an Mr. EWING concluded his remarks, as given entire aristocrat nor a speculator in public lands. I do not in succeeding pages.

know that I bave been accused here of the one or the Mr. E. addressed the Senate as follows:

other, but I have heard gentlemen on the other side of Mr. President: As it is my purpose to examine this the House talk loudly and harshly of speculators, and subject with some care and exactness, and, as far as in my bose whn favor speculations, while, at the same time, power, show it to the Senate in its true colors and pro- they made strong gestures towards the benches here. portions, I find it necessary, in the outset, to spend a few As it referred to no one in particular, I could only ap. moments in clearing it of some of the rubbish with which propriate to myself my juist distributive share of the reit is overlaid and surrounded.

proach which, lessened by division, would be but small.


Jan. 24, 1837.)

Public Lands.


Yet that modicum, insignificant as it may be, I am pre vented my hearing the Senator's principal speech on this pared to dispose of. I therefore say, once for all, that subject, and that a pressure of business since my return I am wholly free from the offence of having ever pur. has not allowed me time to read his report accompanychased public land or any thing else from the General ing this bill. My remarks, so far as the Senator from Government. And I have no sympathy, save that of | Mississippi is concerned, applied to several short speeches general good-will to all mankind, with any who I know of his on incidental questions touching the bill, which have so purchased. I never entered an acre of public have arisen within a few days past. But I cannot concur land in my life, and do not know that I ever shall; nor with bim in the distinction which he draws between do I know that any friend, or even acquaintance of mine, those who purchase occupied and unoccupied lands of is engaged in these purchases. My neighbors, it is the United States. When all are offered in open martrue, in whose welfare I take great interest, do some ket fairly for sale; when all who desire to bid are in. times raise a little spare money and go to the West and } vited by law to become bidders, I cannot recognise the purchase a quarter or a half section of land, to settle a right of any individual to press forward upon a choice son who is about to arrive at the years of manhood, for piece of the public land, before the sale, against law. which they pay the cash into the Treasury of the United Nor can I admit that, by so doing, he makes the lawful States; and until gentlemen satisfy me, more fully than purchaser amenable to censure, any where, for purchathey have yet done, of the impropriety of the thing, 1 sing according !o law. The proposition is monstrous in shall esteem them none the less for it, nor shall I the less itself, and it inust be a diseased state of public morals assiduously advocate their interests and their rights. that can hold it for a moment either reasonable or just.

But, in declaring my utler exemption from all partici. My guide on this subject is the law---those who purchase pation, direct or indirect, in that kind of investment according to its levier and its spirit, and who neither which is here condemned in such unmeasured terms, I break through nor evade its provisions, no matter how do not at all admit the truth or justice of the judgment much or how little they may buy, and no matter who which condemns it. It is a use of money that is suppo may have intruded upon the land before the purchase, I sed to be unpopular, and it is no new artifice to exclaim hold them in that matier blameless; and, as far as my in. against it, as if it were a crime, until, by force of voice formation goes, in nearly all the cases in which occupied and repetition, it may come to be esteemed so; and what land is purchased the squatter is paid many times over is more to the purpose, those who are most deeply en. the value of his improvements; and osten permitted to gaged in it, by being loud and vociferous in iis condem- remain and enjoy them. nation, throw off all suspicion from themselves, and The sales of land in large quantities to large capitalstand the pure advocates of the people's rights, and the ists, as a matter of public policy, is liable to some objecvery antagonist principle of all speculation and monopo- tions, though it produces good as well as evil consely. But, sir, I see no objection to this mode of invest. quences. The evil is sufficiently obvious, and being a ing money when you have it to spare, and can make no very happy subject for popular declamation, it has been beiter use of it. If it be fairly done, it is a fair, and just, reiterated, I know not how ofien, already in this debate. and honest mode of acquiring property. The United That which occurs to me as substantial, and which we States, by a public law, and a public proclamation, of. can obviate by legislation, without producing other and fers its land for sale at a stipulated price; an individual, worse mischief, are, the entries, by an individual or comwho is desirous of possessing the land, goes and purcha- pany, of many small tracts, as of forty or eighty acres, ses, and pays bis money. Now, why, I ask, does any in commanding points, all over the country, or what is one here apply to this act, or the man who does it, op called Jotting, thereby compelling purchasers of the probrious epithets? Why accuse him? Why denounce neighboring tracts to pay enormous prices for such choice him? If he had bought fifty hogsheads of sugar, or a spots; but it will be seen that this bill, so far from remhundred bales of cotton, he would be just as criminal, edying that evil, makes it infinitely worse. No man can and deserve just the same opprobrium and reproach now enter more than two forty-acre tracts, and one of from the members of our National Legislature. Gen those subject to certain conditions--proximity to his tlemen are mistaken; these purchases and speculations, farm; but if this bill becomes a law in its present shape, in which they and their friends are so deeply engaged, he may enter no less than thirty-two of those small are not criminal, nor even improper in ihemselves. tracts, and he may select them any where on the public They are liable, indeed, and especially liable, to be lands between the northern extremity of Wisconsin and contaminated, by fraud or force, or combinations among ibe southern cape of Florida. The entries of large purchasers, and collusion with public officers; but from tracts by great capitalists, with a view to enhance their - these they and all bonorable men, as a matter of course, value by great and important improvements, such as are free. They therefore pronounce a harsh and un. railroads, canals, barbors, cities, have produced, and just judgment on their own acts, and I am prepared to are producing, the most important advantages to the delend them against themselves before the Senate and districts of country in which they are situated. Look at the nation.

the southern shores of Lake Erie, and the whole coast (Mr. Walker here rose to explain. If the gentle of Lake Michigan, and see the towns and cities which man's allusion was to any thing he had said, so far from are rising up on their borders, under the fustering care criminating purchasers of this description, he had, in of capital and intelligence, and you will see at once ihe the report accompanying this bill, expressed many of the full strength of this position. The scatlerred resources same sentiments just uttered by the Senator from Obio. of a thousand individuals, who should have purchased He had denounced, and ever should denounce, in the each his quarter section of land in the neighborhood, strongest terms, those speculators who attended public could not have produced such mighty results in half a sales after having laken down the numbers of lots im. century as have been brought about in a few years by proved by actual settlers, and bid them off over their the investment of accumulated capital. It has facilitahead, thus depriving them of their homes and the fruit of ted migration by the establishment of lines of steam. all their toil.]

boats between ihe cities on the eastern shore of the Mr. Ewing. I referred to the Senator from Missis. lake and those remote western points which a few years sippi who has just taken his seat, and also to others who, ago were a wilderness. It has opened harbors, drained in both branches of Congress, habitually use the same swamps, built wharves, and erected warehouses, transcourse of remark. But I accept the explanation with ferring the business and bustle and comfort and intellipleasure, and regret that absence from the Senate pre. Igence of an old and cultivated community into the very


Public Lands.

[Jan. 24, 1837.

heart of our remote Western forests. Fortunes, per- Gentlemen, it is true, could not be operated upon by haps, are made or augmented by it, but it is well. The motives of this kind, but it were well to avoid the value of land is enhanced greatly all around these select appearance of evil; and as this bill will, if it become a ed spots, but this also is well; it is a just reward of enter. law, have the direct effect of driving purchasers from prise and public spirit, and it injures no one, for the the Government to the speculator, and as it is to continbroad praries of the interior are still open to the grazier, je in force about long enough to enable these large and the plains and woodlands to the farmer, at the Gov- companies to make sale of the twenty millions of acres ernment price, and a nearer and more extensive market is which they have now on hand, the public will attribute open to him in the new and fourishing cities which arise to them this, as one of the motives which induced the on these choice selected spots. I am not, therefore, pre passage of the act. They will be the more inclined to pared to condemn, even as a matter of public policy, Think so, as this act not, and they will see that it is the countenance which our present laws give to this not; what it is pretended to be. It is not a bill to con. kind of investment by the capitalist. Much less am I firm the sales of the public lands to actual settlers; and disposed to join in the denunciation of those who, under an amendinent which would produce that effect, laid on and pursuant to our laws, adopt this mode of investing the table by myself, (not offered, for I could not supo their surplus capital. Gentlemen even here are perhaps port any proposition which would deny to my fellow. too much in the habit of addressing themselves to the citizens the right of purchasing lands to settle their lowest passions of the lowest portion of society, and, children)-an amendment which would have produced while they themselves are insatiale in their ibirst for that effect, met with the universal disapprobation of the riches, speak of poverty as if it were a merit, a good friends of this bill. This bill, therefore, is not, and the thing in itself—and wealth, or even competency, as if people will see that it is not, what it purporis to be; it were a crime. I, for one, unite in mobing of this and its effect, which is the important malter, will be to feeling or expression; if a young man shows himself raise at once some filty or a hundred per cent. the price industrious, enterprising, and intelligent, and birls fair of the lands already in the hands of the large specula. to rise in the world by these qualities, I am not pre. tors, of whom the lawgivery, who are about to pass

this pared, as a slatesman, to tell him that the moment bill, form a very respectable part, and whose friends in he has risen he will have lost his claim to the affec the executive Departments form another portion not tions of his country and the respect and regard of less large and respectable. If this law pass, a member its rulers. And in our country, where industry, so of one of those companies, whose profits would have briety, and prudence, will in almost all cases raise a man been confined to one hundred thousand dollars, will to competence, I do not think that mere poverty, too pocket his two hundred thousand. For this it will be often ihe result of indolence and intemperance, is of it. said he may very well break out in terms of patriotic inself sufficient to entitle the individual io our special af. dignation against speculato!s and capitalists, and lie may fections and regard. In my opinion, poverty and wealth overflow with sympathy for the poor man. But the are, or ought to be, out of the question. I esteem a churlish and ill-natured will aver ibat the members of man none the more and none the less for being poor or the legislative and of the executive Departments, who rich; and in legislation I know not how we can discrim- hold the key in their hands, lave fed until they were full inate between American citizens according to their prop. gorged with these dainties, and then locked the closet, erty. And I contend, and am prepared to delend the that no one else might break in until they were ready proposition, that the man whom industry, temperance, themselves to return and renew the feast. and intellect, have enabled to acquire a competence, is I have said that the amount of land in the hands of as meritorious as one whom indolence, intemperance, and speculators is about twenty millions of acres; this, in imprudence, have kept poor.

round numbers, is very near the quantity. In a report I therefore put out of the question all that has been which I had the bonor to present last year, from the said about and against capitalists and speculators. I join Committee on Public Lands, l estimated the quantity in the denuncia'ion of no class of our fellow-citizens who wanted for actual occupation at eight millions of acres pursue a business which the law authorizes; and I do yearly. This was then thought too high, but time will not make, nor do I pretend to make, any efforts to put verilý its accuracy. Year before last ihe sales amountthem down. But, on the other band, I will not consent ed to about thirteen millions of acres. This year they to pass any law which shall operate against the mass of amounted to more than twenty millions; which, taking the community-against the small capitalist, the farmer, my estimate of what is wanted for se!tlement as correct, the mechanic, the laborer-for the special benefit of any (and every one admits it is high enough,) it will leave class of speculators, however great their power or dem in the hands of speculators from sixteen to lwenty mil. ocratic their professions; and I believe it, that many of lions of the purchases of those two years. The whole ag. the executive officers, some of the very highest, next to gregate is low enough at twenty millions. This immense the President himself, are deeply concerned in these investment, amounting in cash (if we include all expenhand speculations. It is also said, and I believe it, that ses) to thirty millions of dollars, has more than exhaustsome in this chamber and in the other House are also ed all the capital that can be turned from the ordinary members of these large joint stock companies, which business of the country to this object. Those who hold have purchased to an immense amount. 'I charge no public stations and command political influence, or whose one in particular, nor do I present it as a matter of friends command it, 'have become borrowers to an imcharge; but I name it to caution gentlemen who are so mense amount of the public money from the deposite engaged and so interested, that they do not permit their banks; and the deposite bill of the last year cut off the private interest, unawares to themselves, to glide in and sources of their supply, and compels them to pour back mingle with the performance of a public trust. How into the fountain from which it was drawn a portion of can those who are so engaged, and who have so puro their borrowed treasure. This state of things tends to chased to the full extent of all their available means, make this business, pushed as it has been to an unrea. how can they now, as Jawgivers, say to the rest of the Sinable extent, a precarious if not a losing business, uncommunity, you shall not purchase the public sales less the Legislature come to the relief of these borrow. shall be closed against you--and if you wish to buy, come ers of the public money. Gentlemen may say what they to us; we have land to sell in abundance, and we will please about these persons, if they will only aid them by sell it to all who will pay for it, without discrimination, a law such as this. . If they will but encumber the conand we sell it embarrassed by no troublesome conditions? ditions of the sales of public land to honest and fair pur.

Jan. 24, 1837.]

Public Lands.


chasers, so that they cannot buy of Government, but chairman of the Committee on Public Lands to refer this may be compelled to buy of the speculator, those who bill to them for their opinion. Now, my constituents have gone farthest in proportion to their resources, and who reside at a distance from the public lands, and who are compelled to sell, will thank you for your hard names do not understand this mode of becoming "actual set. and good gifts. And they have no reason to complain tlers" and of "clearing and cultivating land;" would be of unkindness; the Treasury order did much for them, unable to purchase of the Government at all, and would but that cannot endure long; the public exclaim with one be driven to buy second hand of those who understood voice against it, and it must go down. But this bill, the matter better, or of the speculators who have already which better effects the same object, is to be first substi on hand large quantities for sale. Gentlemen who adtuted in its stead. I see, however, by indications here, vocale this bill see in it a remedy for many great politie that we shall not touch the bill rescinding the Treasury cal and moral evils; among others, it is to destroy or pre. circular in time for it to be taken up in the other House vent that dreadful scourge, "a surplus and distribution," and passed into a law. It will not do to keep up that for which they evince such a holy horror. This surplus order to oppress the country, for the people will not was a very good thing so long as it remained in the de. endure it long. It is to be rescinded, but not by an act posite banks, and was by them lent out to those who of Congress. We shall pass such act through this wished to purchase public land "in limited quantities"branch near the close of the session; it will be lost in the such, for example, as balf a million of acres to a single other House for want of time; and thus it will be reserved company; but when you come to distribute, or rather until after the 4th of March, ibat its final recision may be deposite in the State treasuries, then it carries with it all

feather in the cap of the new administration. linser sorts of political iniquity and corruption; it is every thing this from the fact that this bill, for which the people do that is monstrous, no republican can bear it, and this bill not call, is pressed in advance of the bill to rescind tbe is to put an end to the mischies; and this money, which, Treasury order. And when I moved the other day to if distributed, would corrupt the whole nation, can be take up that bill, I received a most significant intimation, safely trusted with the gentlemen and their constituents, from a gentleman whose word is law here, that I might without any danger of corrupting them. Let us, say they, spare my efforts, for they were useless; and it proved so— be the exclusive purchasers of the public land; we will the party refused to take up the bill.

not take much of it, but we want it cheap; but save us Having considered some matters which touch this bill from competition! Do not permit the Ohio and Penncollaterally, and which, if it pass, will really have more sylvania farmers, rough, rude fellows as they are, to influence on its passage than any intrinsic merit which it come to the sales with their litile wallets of cash, and bid possesses, I will now proceed to consider some of thie against us--us, anti-monopolists--or enter the land that provisions of the bill itself, and show how far forth it is we want, while we are waiting to raise funds to secure likely to effect its professed objects. It proposes to lim. it: will draw all this provoking competition, pass this bill, it the sales of the public lands to actual settlers, and that and make it unlawful for any ir an living in one of the old in small quantities. The requirements of the bill in that states to come to the new to purchase Government lands, respect are, 1st, no man may enter under one of the sec and we will let the tariff alone, we will adhere to he tions of this bill more than 1,280 acres of land; but in an. compromise and bold it sacred, and we will also save other part of the bill he is very generously allowed 640 you from the inconvenience of a surplus and the perils of acres more if he want it, to eke out his farm; so he may distribution. Some of these gentlemen reason with us purchase 1,920 acres; and this is what is called "smail mildly, others declaim with oratorical vehemence. Why, quantities.". The settlement provision requires that the say they, should you collect money from the people purchaser should reside on the land or some part of it which you do not want, merely to distribute it among one year, or--not and--or clear and cultivate one tenth ibem again? And when we answer that it arises out of the part of it within five years. Now, the clearing, where sale of the national domain, that we must receive or stop one tenth part of the tract is open prairie land, is not a these sales, and when received we must preserve it in matter of much difficulty or hardship, it requires only

such manner as to render the most service to the whole the burning off the grass in November, and that work is country, they offer to relieve us of all this inconvenis done. Then the cultivation; what is that, and how is it ence by keeping the public land anıl the profils on it defined? Is it the passing a narrow over the ground, themselves; thus lightening the public burdens by posand sowing tame grass seed on it? Is it running a few sessing themselves of the public property. You have, furrows across a tract of one or Iwo bundred acres, and say they, a great guantity of excellent land, which is a planting corn rows upon it, with the hills a hundred very great trouble to you; we and our constituents will yards apart? It is not to be cultivated well, but merely relieve you of it at once; but do not let the people of cultivaled, and the fact of cultivation to be settled by the old States have it, or any part or lot in it; they are those who make the affidavit before the register and respeculators, and they will fill your Treasury with money, ceiver, in order to perfect the title. Those, then, who which you know is a very troublesome thing. We why live upon the spot, and who understand it, would have are not speculators, but who know how to inake money nothing to do but to put up a log cabin, which would by dealing in land, will take it without embarrassing you cost five or ten dollars, burn the grass off of 200 acres with any thing that will burden your Treasury: of prairie, and run a plough or harrow a few times across,

These lands, which gentlemen ask, in behalf of them. and sow or plant a little grass seed or a few hills of corn, selves and their constituents, the exclusive privilege and the condition of the law requiring “ actual seltle of purchasing at the minimum price of $1 25 per ment" is complied with. The affidavit is made, and the acre, are worth, by their own showing, from $5 10 patent obtained. This bill leaves the fact of clearing $40 per acre.

There are yet undisposed of about and cultivation to the sound discretion and clear con. one thousand millions of acres---1100 all of such great science of the affidavit man, who is to swear to it; and if value, but worth, nevertheless, more than one thousand there be any other regulation or restriction, I am not ad. millions of dollars. Pass this bill, and follow it up, as vised of it.. We have a Committee on Agriculture, it is you are certain 10 do if you once make the commence. true, of which my honorable friend from Kentucky near

ment, and there will be fortunes made under it, such as me is a member, though not of high rank, last I believe. nu crowned head in Europe can boast; Cresus wus a (Mr. CLAY: “ last, but not leasl." A laugh.] This com beggar compared win the industrious and unscrupulous mittee, however, has not yet reported what shall amount speculator under this bill. Gentlemen before whose cyes to cultivation, and I presume it is not the purpose of the

whese golden visions flit hale every ibing they ought to

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