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4. Every citizen is bound to support the government by obeying its laws.

5. He is bound to disobey a law which violates his conscience; but he must suffer the penalties of disobedience.

6. Every citizen is bound to support the government with his money, and by his service if necessary to its defence.

7. Voting is a duty.

8. Suffrage is called a right because it has been conferred as such gradually by absolute governments.

9. Revolution may be a duty. Armed revolution is justifiable only as a last resort, and when success is probable.

11. The government should punish rebels. 12. Political duties are moral obligations.

PART II.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT IN THE STATES

BEFORE THEIR INDEPENDENCE.

CHAPTER VIII.

ESTABLISHMENT OF CIVIL, RELIGIOUS, AND POLITICAL

LIBERTY IN ENGLAND.

As most of the settlers of the thirteen colonies were from England, it is necessary to know what notions of government they brought with them; and to do this we must trace the development of civil institutions in the mother country. We shall find that nearly all that is best in our government had been secured by centuries of conflict in Great Britain.

Under the Anglo-Saxon kings, people were divided into two great classes, — freemen and slaves. Two classes of freemen existed, - those who owned land, and those who did not.

The country was divided into Counties, in each of which a Court was held periodically, pre

County Courts. sided over by an alderman. This court was an assembly of freemen; but it is doubtful if any but land-owners voted. Before this body, wills and deeds were attested ; and it was also a court of justice. At first the whole body of people decided matters in dispute. Afterward, in each case, a body of men, usually twelve, acquainted with the facts, gave a decision upon oath. This was the germ of the modern jury system.

1 See close of chapter for list of sovereigns of England.

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