« AnteriorContinuar »
gligence of dress. Tlience wehear Montaigne saying, "I have never yet been apt to imitate the negligent garb, observable among the young men of our time, to wear my cloak on one shoulder, my bonnet on one side, and one stocking in somewhat more disorder than the other, meant to express a manly disdain of such exotic ornaments, and a contempt of nit." There is no beauty in the cultivated negligence even of trifles. It is only that which is occasional, appropriate, and which indicates a mind engaged and absorbed in something worthy of it which truly pleases. Scott saw it in his Lady of the Lake, when he said,
With head upraised, and look Intent,
No kindred grace adorns her of whom it may be said—
Coquet and coy. at once her air.
Truth to nature, then, is beauty, and to study the laws of nature is to chasten and develope the taste for beauty.
Another means of cultivating good taste, is to study the expression of character or design in which the beauty of objects consists. In the material world, every thing beautiful is a manifestation of certain qualities which are by nature agreeable to the mind; and to ascertain what these are, to point them out distinctly, to classify them, is a pleasing mode of refining and quickening the taste for beauty. "The longer I live," said one, " the more familiar I become with the world around me. Oh I that I could feel the keen zest of which I was susceptible when a boy, and all was new and fair!" "The longer I live," says another, " the more charmed I become with the beauties of a picture or a landscape." The first of these had a natural taste for beauty which he had never developed by studying the expressions of character, which constitute the loveliness of creation. The other, regarding the outward universe as a splendid system of signs, directed his attention to the thing signified; loved to contemplate the moral qualities which were beaming forth from all the surrounding objects, and thus saw open before him a boundless field, ever glowing with new colors and fresh attractions. The first, as he heard a piece of music, might from the mechanism of his nature feel some pleasure arising from novelty, or a regular succession of sounds, which familiarity would soon dispel. The other, as he studied the expression of character, which those tones gave forth, as for instance, with the loud sound he associated the ideas of power or peril, with the low, those of delicacy and gentleness, with the acute, those of fear and surprise, with the grave, solemnity and dignity; he would become more and more deeply touched and enraptured, while listening to the music of nature in the voice of singing winds or in the plaint of nn JSolian harp, in the crash of thunder or in the roar of the cataract, in the murmur of the brook or in the moan of the ocean, in the sigh of the zephyr or in the breath of the whirlwind, or while listening to the music of art breaking forth from the loud-sounding trumpet, the muffled drum, or Zion's lyre which hangs upon religion's shrine.
OSGOOD. 571of honorable lineage in the old world and the new. The family is of English ancestry, and seems to have belonged to the solid yeomanry of the old Saxon times. The American progenitor was John Osgood, who was born July 23, 1595, and who emigrated from Andover, England, previous to the year 1639, and who, with Governor Bradstreet, founded the town of Andover, Mass., where his large farm is still held by his descendants. He had four sons, John, Stephen, Christopher, and Thomas.
From the first son John, in the sixth generation from the father, was descended the Hon. Samuel Osgood, of Revolutionary memory and of Revolutionary virtue, who has a claim of his own upon attention here as the author of several productions. He was born February 14,1748, at Andover, Mass., was a graduate of Harvard of 1770, and applied himself for a while to the study of theology, when the War of Independence breaking out, he took part in its affairs; was in the skirmish at Lexington; became aide to General Ward ; then an important member of the provincial congress of Massachusetts; a delegate to the congress of the confederation at Philadelphia in 1781, and in 1785 First Commissioner of the National Treasury. He was succeeded in this latter office, on the new adjustment of the Constitution, by Alexander Hamilton. This duty, and his appointment by Washington as Postmaster General, kept him at New York, of which city he was a resident in the latter portion of his prolonged life, holding various positions of trust and confidence. His mansion in Franklin square has an historical name, as the head-quarters of Washington. His publications were chiefly of a religious character, "Remarks on Daniel and Revelations," "A Letter on Episcopacy," a volume on "Theology and Metaphysics," another of "Chronology." He was an elder of the Brick Presbyterian Church in Beekman street, where he was interred at his death, August 12, 1813*
The Rev. David Osgood, one of the most noted of the New England divines, of the Federalist stamp in politics, and of the Arminian school in theology, was descended from the second son Stephen, in the fifth generation from the progenitor, John Osgood. He died at the age of seventyfour, in 1822, having led a distinguished career as the minister of Medford. His publications were numerous occasional discourses.
The Rev. Samuel Osgood is descended from the third son, Christopher Osgood, of Andover, in the seventh generation from John, the founder of the family in America. He was born in Charlestown, Mass., August 30, 1812; became a graduate of Harvard in 1832, and completed his theological education at Cambridge in 1835. After two years of travel he was appointed pastor of the Unitarian Congregational Church in Nashua, N. H., in 1837; and at the close of the year 1841, took charge of the Westminster Congregational Church in Providence, R. I. In October, 1849, he succeeded the Rev. Dr. Dewey
SAMUEL OSGOOD. The Rev. Samuel Osgood, of the Unitarian Church, of Now York, is a member of a family
* There Is a notice of Samuel Osgood, prefatory to a genealogical account of the family, in J. B. Holgate s American Genealogy.
Mr. Osgood has published translations from the German of Olshausen on the Position of Christ, in Boston, 1839, and DeWette's Practical Ethics, with an original introduction, Boston, 1842, in two volumes. His original works are several volumes of a devotional character, and numerous articles of research, scholarship, and philosophical acumen, in the higher periodical literature. Ho has published Studies in Christian Biography, or Hours with Theologians and Reformers, including several of the Church fathers, Calvin, Grotius, George Fox, Swedenborg, Jonathan Edwards, and others; God with Man, or Footprints of Providential Leaders, devoted to biblical characters of the Old and New Testament; The Hearth Stone; Thoughts upon Home L fe in our Cities, and Mile-Stones in our L fc Journey, the latter peculiarly exhibiting the kindly, earnest, affectionate tone of the author's pastoral ministrations.
Mr. Osgood has been a frequent contributor to the Christian Examiner, as well as to other literary and theological journals; while as one of the editors of the Christian Inquirer, the weekly newspaper organ of the Unitarians in New York, he has diligently completed the round of periodical literature in all its relations. Whilst a temporary resident of the West in 1836 and 1837, he was co-editor of theWestern Messenger, a religious monthly, published in Kentucky. His associate in this enterprise was the Rev. James Freeman Clarke, a graduate of Harvard of 1829 ; formerly a Unitarian minister at Louisville, Kentucky, and afterwards at Boston. The Western Messenger was a monthly magazine, published chiefly at Louisville, and for a time at Cincinnati. Mr. Clarke is the author of numerous short poems, of a portion of the Memoirs of Margaret Fuller, and of two religious works, "The Doctrine of Forgiveness," and "On Prayer."
Mr. Osgood's published orations, speeches, and sermons, have also been numerous, and include the prominent topics of the day connected with education and literary institutions.* Among his personal connexions with the latter, is his prominent participation in the management of the New York Historical Society.
As a speaker, Mr. Osgood is clear, full, and emphatic, a well toned voice seconding a ready command of appropriate language. He is well read as a scholar, fertile in analysis, and happy in the use of illustrations from history, biography, or morals. In his pulpit relations he is ranked among the more evangelical class of Unitarian clergymen; and although a fond student of German literature, and an independent thinker, has never yielded to the rationalism characteristic of German theology. He usually preaches without notes, and his sermons and pastoral care are more strongly marked by love for the associations, festivals, literature, and men of the ancient church, than is common with ministers of the extreme Protestant school to which he belongs by position. He was brought up under the ministry of the Rev. James Walker, the President of Harvard, took his religious views and philosophical principles from that eminent moralist and theologian, and has continued to sustain towards him a close persoual aud professional relation.
* The following are 1 lie principal miscellaneous publications of Mr. Osgood in pamphlets and periodicals. In the Western Messenger:—Physical Theory of Another Life. 1886: Dewey's Old World and Sew, 1886 ; Love of the Trade, 1887; Robespierre, 1887; D'Holbach B System of Nature,1888; Prescott, Bancroft, and Carlyle, 1888. In the Christian Examiner:—Education in the West, 1837; Debates on Catholicism, 1887 ; DeWette's System of Religion, 1888; De Wottc s Theological Position, 188S; American Education, 1689; Satanic School in Literature, 1889; Educafon of Mothers, 1840; Jouffroy's Ethics, :S40; ; Christian Ethics before the Reformation. 1840 Christian Ethics j since the Reformation, 1841: Isaac Tavlor on Spiritual Chris! tlanlty. 1842; St. Pauls Epistles. 1842; Isaac Williams, the Poet of Puscyism, 1848; Theodore Parker's De Wette on the I Old Testament, 1844; Preaching Extempore. 1844; Conventions aud Conferences, 1845; Relation between Old and New 1 Testaments, 1846; St. Augustine and bis Times 1846: St. ] Augustine and his Works, 184C; Memoir of Charles J. Fox, Esq., of Nashua, 1846 ; Hugo Orotiusand his Times. ll47 ; John Wesley, 1847; Jonaihan Edwards. 1848; Christianity and Socialism. 1848; St. Theresa and the Devotees of Spain. 1849; Modem Ecclesiastical History, I860; The German in America, : 1851; Recent Aspects of .Judaism, 1858; The Church of the First Throe Centuries, 1858; Milton In our Day, 1854: Americans and Men of the Old World, 1856; in the North American Review, Chrysostom and his Eloquence. 1846; In the Bibliolheca Sacra, St. Jerome and his Times. 1S4S : Socialism in the United States, Christian Review, 1852: The Blouse in both Hemispheres, New York Quarterly, 1854: Modern Prophets, Putnam's Monthly, 1854; Loyola, and the Jesuit Reaction. 1854. He has published the following sermons.—The Star of Bethlehem. 1840; Manifestation of God. 1841; Farewell at Nashua. 1841 : Memory and Hope; Two Sermons on leaving Providence, 1849; Death of President Taylor, 1850; Quarter Century of the Church of the Messiah, 1851 : The Scholar's Death : a Tribute to Andrews Norton, 1868: Devotion and Trade: Sermon st Louisville. Kv., 1854; Loss of the I Arctic, 1864: Lessons of the Tear of Calamities. 1854 : Fifteen I Sermons In the volume already named, and entitled.11 God with Men," 1S58. Speeches and Addresses published :—American Principles—an Oration. 1889; The State of Education In New* Hampshln—an Address. 1841; William Penn and Roger Williams—Speech at Philadelphia. 1846; The Schools of New England—Speech at New England Dinner. 1849; Speech before j the Massachusetts Bible Society, 1861 ; The Services or Fenimore Cooper, 1852; Remarks on the Death of Daniel Web!ster, 1862; Speech In Baltimore on Church Principles, 1852; The Founders of Maryland—Remarks at Baltimore, 1--52; The Pr inciple of Mutual Insurance—a Mercantile Addr.ss, 1858: The Plymouth Celebration, 1858 : Semi-Centennial of the New York Historical Society. 1854 ; The Oriental Raers— I Address at the Inauguration of the Jewish Institute, 1854: i American Eloquence—Speech on the Birth-day of Henry* | Clay, 1865. *
l OF BOTnOOP—FROM MILE-STONES IN OCB LIFKJOUKNKT.
From the old battle hill, I can see the 9ite of the school-house where two or three hundred boys were gathered together to be whipped and taught as their fatll era were before them. A new edifice, indeed, has taken the place of our school, yet upon its statelier front I can sec, as if drawn in the air by a strange pencil, the outline of that ancient building, with its round belfry, whose iron tongue held such imperial command of our hours. It costs no great effort to summon back one of those famous Examination Days that absorbed the anticipation of months, and made the week almost breathless with anxiety. There shines the nicely sanded floor, which the cunning sweeper hod marked in waving figures, to redeem it from association with any vulgar dust. There sit the School Committee, chief among them the trim chairman, upon whose lips, when he pronounces the final opinion of the Doard, the very fates seem to rest their judgment. There, too, is the throng of parents, kindred, and friends, who have come to note the performances of the boys, to look pity upon their mistakes, and to smile sympathy upon tlieir successes. Should the presidential chair fall to his lot, no prouder and more radiant day can come to the school-boy, than when, with new clothes and shining shoes, he stands forth to speak his well-conned piece, and wears away among the admiring crowd the ribboned medal that marks his triumph.
Our schoolmasters were great characters in our eyes, and the two who held successively the charge of the grammar department, made a prominent figure in our wayside chat, and to this day we can find some trace of their influence in our very speech and manner. They were men of very different stamp and destiny. The first of them was a tall fair-faced man, with on almost perpetual smile. I always felt kindly towards him, though it was not easy to decide whether his smile was the expression of his goodnature, or the mask of his severity. He wore it very much the same when ho flogged an offender, as when he praised a good recitation. He seemed to delight in making a joke of punishment, and it was a favorite habit of his, to fasten upon the end of his rattan the pitch and gum taken from the mouths of masticating urchins, and then, coming upon their idleness unawares, he would insert the glutinous implement in their hair not to be withdrawn without an adroit jerk and the loss of some scalp locks. Poor fellow! his ensy nnture probably ruined him, and he left the school, not long to follow any industrious calling. When, a few years afterwords, I met him in Boston, with the marks of broken health and fortune in his face and dress, the sight was shocking to all old associations, as if a dignity quite sacerdotal had fallen into the dust. His earthly troubles have long been ended, and I take some pleasure in recording a kind and somewhat grateful feeling townrds one whose name I have not heard spoken these many years. His successor was a man of different mould, a stern, resolute man, his face full of an expression that seemed to say that circumstances are but accidents, and it is the will that mokes or mars the man. He was not in robust health, and it seemed to some of us, who were thoughtful of his feelings, that were it not for this, he would have been likely to pursue a more ambitious career, and give to the bar the excellent gifts that he devoted to teaching. Ho was a most faithful teacher, and his frown, li!;e the rain clou<l,h:ida richer blessing for many a wayward idler, than his predecessor's perennial smile. He lias borne the I burden and the heat of the day for many a long ]
year, with ample sncccss, and when he falls at his post, it will bo with the consciousness of having done a good work for his race, in a calling far more honored by Heaven than any of the more ambitious spheres that perhaps won his youthful enthusiasm. Well says the noble Jean Paul Richtcr:—" Honor to those who labor in school-rooms! Although they may fall from notice like the spring blossoms, like the spring blossoms they fall that the fruit may be born."
There nre two other personages that have much to do with every youth's education, and whose names nre household words in every New England home. The doctor and the minister figure largely in every boy's meditations, and in our day, the loyalty that we felt towards their professions had not been troubled by a homceopnthic doubt or a radical scruple. In our case, it needed no especial docility to appreciate these functionaries.* Our doctor was a most emphatic character, a man of decided mark in the eyes alike of friends and enemies. He was very impatient of questions, and very brief yet pithy in his advice, which was of marvellous point and sagacity. He lost his brevity, however, the moment that other subjects were broached, and he could tell o good story with a dramatic power that would have made him famous upon the stage. He was renowned as a surgeon, and could guide the knife within a hair's breadth of a vital nerve or artery with his left hand quite as firmly as with his right. This ambi-dexterity extended to other faculties, and he was quite as keen at a negotiation as at an amputation. He was no paragon of conciliation, and many of the magnates of the profession appeared to have little liking for him, and sometimes railed him n poor scholar, rude in learning and taste, but lucky in his mechanical tact. But he beat them out of this notion, as of muny others, by giving an anniversary discourse before the State Medical Association, which won plaudits from his severest rivals, for its classical elegance, ns well as its professional learning and sagacity. It was said that the wrong side of him was very wrong and very rough. But those of us who knew him as a friend, tender and true, never believed that he had any wrong side. Certain it is, that they who grew up under his pract ice have been little inclined to exchange the regular school of medicine, with its scientific method and gradual progress, for any new nostrums of magical pretensions.
Our minister had the name of being the wise man of the town, and I do not remember to have heard a word in disparagement of his mind or motives, even among those who questioned the soundness of his creed. His voice has always been as no other man's to many of us, whether heard as for the first time at a father's funeral, as by me when a child five years old, or in the pulpit from year to year. Ho came to our parish when quite young, and when theological controversy was at its full height. A polemic style of preaching was then common, and undoubtedly in his later years of calm study, and more broad and spiritual philosophizing, he would have read with some good-natured shakes of tho head, the more fiery discourses of his novitiate, whilst he might recognise, throughout, the same spirit of manly independence, republican humanity, and profound reverence that have marked his whole career. There was always something peculiarly impressive in his preaching. Each sermon had ono or more pithy sayings that a boy could not forget; and when the thoughts were too profound or ab
• Dr. William J. Walker, of Charlestown, Mass, and tho Eev. James Walker, now President of Harvard. , street for our comprehension, there was an earnestness and reality in the manner which held the attention, like a brave ship under full sail that fixes the gaze of the spectator, though he may not know whither she is bound or what is her carjro, sure enough that she is loaded with something, and isgoing right smartly somewhere. It was evident that our minister was a faithful student and indefatigable thinker. When the best books afterwards came in our w»y, we found that the guiding lines of moral and spiritual wisdom had already been set before us, and we hud been made familiar with the well winnowed wheat from the great fields of humanity. Every thought, whether original or from books, bore the stamp of the preacher's own individuality; and may well endorse the saying, that upon topics of philosophic analysis and of practical morals he was without a superior, if not without a rival in our pulpits. It is a great thing for young people to grow up under happy religious auspices, and religion itself has a new charm and power when dispensed by a man who is always named in the family with reverence and tenderness. The world would be far better, and Christian service would be much more truly valued, if there were more just and emphatic tribute paid to efficient pastoral labor. Our well known minister has now a more conspicuous station; but he cannot easily have deeper influence than when pastor for a score of years over a united parish, and one of the leaders of public opinion upon all topics of high importance. It is well that the new post is in such harmony with the previous career; for the head of a college, according to our old-fashioned ideas, should be a minister, and he should always abide in due manner by the pastoral office.
As we close our sketch with this vivid picture before us, we cannot but glance nt the changes that have come over Christendom since Augustine's time. Could the legend preserved by Gibbon, and told of seven young men of that age, who were said to have come forth alive from a cave at Ephesus, where they had been immured for death by the Pagan Emperor Decius, and whence they were said to have emerged, awakened from nearly two centuries of slumber, to revisit the scenes of their youth and to behold with astonishment the cross displayed triumphant, where once the Ephesian Diana reigned supreme ;—could this legend be virtually fulfilled in Augustine, dating the slumber from the period of his decease; could the great Latin father have been saved from dissolution and have sunk into a deep sleep in the tomb where Possidius and his clerical companions laid him with solemn hymns and eucharistie sacrifice, while Gcnscric and his Vandals were storming the city gates; and could he but come forth in our day, and look upon our Christendom, would he not be more startled than were the seven sleepers of Ephesus? There indeed roll the waves of the same great sea; there gleam the waters of the river on which so many times he had gazed, musing upon its varied path from the Atlas mountains to the Mediterranean, full of lessons in human life; there stretches the landscape in its beauty, rich with the olive and the figtree, the citron and the jujube. But how changed are all else. The ancient Numidin is ruled by the French, the countrymen of Martin and Hilary; it is the modern Algiers. Hippo is only n ruin, and near its site is the bustliug manufacturing town of Bona. At Constantine, near by, still lingers a solitary church of the age of Constantine, and the only building to remind Augustine of the churches of his own
day. In other places, as at Bona, the mosque ha* been converted into the Christian temple, and its mingled emblems might tell the astonished saint how the Cross hod struggled with the Crescent, and how it hnd conquered. Go to whatever church he would on the 28th of August, he would hear a mass in commemoration of his death, and might learn that similar services were offered in every country under the sun, and in the imperial language which he so loved to speak. Let him go westward to the sea coast, and he finds the ne w city, Algiers, and if he arrived at a favorable time, he might hear the cannon announcing the approach of the Marseilles steamer, see the people throng the shore for the lost French news, and thus contemplate at once the mighty agencies of the modern world, powder, print, and steam. Although full of amazement, it would not be all admiration. He would find little in the motley population of Jews, Berbers, Moors, and French, to console him for the absence of the loved people of his charge, whose graves not a stone would appear to mark.
Should he desire to know how modern men philosophised in reference to the topics that once distracted his Manichean period, he would find enough to interest and astonish him in the pages of Spinoza and Leibnitz, SwedenborgandSchelling; and would be no indifferent student of the metaphysical creeds of Descortes, and Lock, and Kant. Much of novelty would undoubtedly appear to him united with much familiar and ancient. Should he inquire into the state of theology through Christendom, in order to trace the influence of his favorite doctrines of original sin and elective grace, he would learn that they had never in their decided forms been favorites with the Catholic Church, that the imperial mother had canonised his name and proscribed his peculiar creed, and that the principles that fell with the walls of the hallowed Port Royal, had found their warmest advocates in Switzerland, in Scotland, and far America, beyond the Roman communion. He would recognise his mantle on the shoulders of Calvin of Geneva, and his followers, Knox of Scotlnnd, end those mighty Puritans who trusting in God and his decreeing will, colonised our own New England, and brought with them a faith and virtue that have continued, while their Btern dogmas have been considerably mitigated in the creed of their children. The Institutes of Calvin would assure him that the modern age possessed thinkers clear and strong as he, and the work of Edwards on the Will would probably move him to bow his head as before a dialectician of a logic more adamantine than his own, and make him yearn to visit the land of a divine, who united an intellec t so mighty with a spirit so humble and devoted. Should he come among us, he would find multitudes to respect his name, and to nccept his essential principles, though few, if any, to agree with him in his views of the doom of infants, or of the limited offer of redemption. He would think much of our orthodoxy quite Pelagian, even when tested by the opinion of present champions of the ancient faith. In the pages of Channing he would think of his old antagonist, Pelagius, revived with renewed vigor, enlarged philosophy, and added eloquence. He might call this perhaps too fond champion of the dignity of man by the name, Pelagius, —like him in doctrine, like him, as the name denotes, a dweller by the sea. Who shall say how much the influences of position helped to form the two champions of human nature, the ancient Briton and the modern New Englander, both in part at least of the 6ame British race, both nursed by the sea-side, the one by the Bhores of Wales or Brittany, the other by the beach of Rhode Island. "No spot on earth," says Clianning, "has helped to form me so much as that beach. There I lifted up my voice in praise amidst the tempest. There, softened by beauty, I poured out my thanksgiving and contrite confessions. There, in reverential sympathy with the mighty power around me, I became conscious of power within."
How long before the human soul shall reach so full a development, that faith and works, reason and authority, human ability and divine grace shall be deemed harmonious, and men cease to be divided by an Augustine and Pelagius, or an Edwards and Channingf Although this consummation may not soon, if ever, be, and opinions may still differ, charity has gained somewhat in the lapse of centuries. Those who are usually considered the followers of Pelagius have been first to print a complete ■work of Augustine in America—his Confessions. The Roman Church, backed by imperial power and not checked by Augustine, drove the intrepid Briton into exile and an unknown grave. He who more than any other man wore his mantle of moral freedom in our age died, honored throughout Christendom, and the bell of a Roman cathedral joined in the requiem as his remains were borne through the thronged streets of the city of his home.
THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA.
Tnis association originated in the social gatherings of a few friends of natural science in the city of Philadelphia. Its founders were John Speakinan, a member of the Society of Friends, engaged in business as an apothecary, and Jacob Gilliams, a dentist. These gentlemen were in the habit of meeting Thomas Say and William Bartram at the residence of the latter at Kingsessing, near Philadelphia, and the pleasure and profit resulting from these interviews led to the desire of forming a plan by which reunions of these and other friends of science could bs secured at stated intervals.
A meeting was called for this purpose by Messrs. Speakman and Gilliams at the residence of the first named on the evening of January 25, 1812, at which the following persons were present by invitation—Dr. Gerard Troost, Dr. Camillus McMahon Man, Messrs. John Shinn, Jr., Nicholas S. Pannentier. Steps were taken to form an organization, which was perfected on the 21st of March following, and the name of Thomas Say was by general consent added to the number of original members. An upper room was rented, and the collection of books and specimens commenced. Thomas Say was appointed the first Curator.
Thomas Sat was born in the city of Philadelphia, July 27, 1787. He was the son of Dr. Benjamin Say, a druggist, who introduced him into the same business. He subsequently became associated in business with his friend Speakman. By injudicious endorsements the partnership became involved, and the business brought to a close. Mr. Say afterwards became curator of the Academy. His simple habits of life, while thus occupied, are pleasantly described by Dr. Ruschenberger:
"He resided in the Hall of the Academy, where he made his bed beneath a skeleton of a horse, and fed himself on bread and milk; occasionally he cooked a chop or boiled an egg; but he was wont to regard eating as an inconvenient interruption to scientific pursuits, and often expressed a wish
that he had been made with a hole in his side, in which he might deposit, from time to time, the quantity of food requisite for his nourishment. He lived in this manner several years, during
\ which time his food did not cost, on an average,
; more than twelve cents a day."
In 1818 Mr. Say joined Messrs. Maclure, Ord, and Peale, in a scientific exploration of the islands and coast of Georgia. They visited East Florida
I for the same purpose; but their progress to the
i interior was arrested by the hostilities between
j the people of the United States and the Indians.
I In 1819-20 he accompanied as chief geologist the expedition headed by Major Long to the Rocky
'Mountains, and in 1823 to the sources of the St. Peter's river and adjoining country. In 1825 he removed with Maclure and Owen to the New Harmony settlement. He remained after the
I separation of his two associates as agent of the property, and died of a fever, October 10, 1834.
His chief work is his American Entomology, published at Philadelphia in three beautifully illustrated octavo volumes, by S. A. Mitchell, in 1824-5. He also commenced a work on American Conchology, six numbers of which were published before his death. He was also a frequent contributor to the journal of the Academy and other similar periodicals. His discoveries in Entomology are said to have probably been greater than those ever made by any single individual.*
Gerard Troost, the first President of the Academy, was born at Bois le Due, Holland, March 15, 1776. He was educated in his native country, received the degree of Doctor of Medicine at the University of Leyden, and practised for a short time at Amsterdam and the Hague. He then entered the army, where he served at first as a private soldier and afterwards as an officer of the first rank in the medical department. In 1807 he was sent by Louis Buonaparte, then King of Holland, to Paris to pursue his favorite studies in natural science. He there translated into the Dutch language Humboldt's Aspects of Nature.
In 1809 ho was sent by the King of Holland to Java, on a tour of scientific observation. He took passage from a northern port in an American vessel to escape the British cruisers, proposing to sail to New York and thence to his destination. The vessel was, however, captured by a French privateer, and carried into Dunkirk, where the naturalist was imprisoned until the French government was informed of his position. On his release, he proceeded to Paris, where he obtained a passport for America. He embarked at Rochelle, and arrived at Philadelphia in 1810.
After the abdication of Louis Buonaparte, he determined to make the United States his permanent residence, and turned his chemical knowledge to good account by establishing a manufactory of alum in Maryland.
Dr. Troost resigned the presidency of the Academy in 1817, and was succeeded by Mr. Maclure. He was afterwards, about 1821, appointed the first Professor of Chemistry in the College of Pharmacy at Philadelphia, but resigned in the following year.
* Encyclopedia Americana, xiv. CSS.