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SCENE I.-“ Boatswain," &c.
duced under the only circumstances in which UPON this scene Dr. Johnson has the following
it was indisputable.” remark :-“In this naval dialogue, perhaps the
Mr. Campbell gives the testimony of Captain first example of sailors' language exhibited on
Glascock, R.N., to the correctness of Shakspere the stage, there are, as I have been told by a
in nautical matters :-"The Boatswain in The skilful navigator, some inaccuracies and con
Tempest' delivers himself in the true vernatradictory orders.” Malone, in reply to this, cular style of the forecastle.” very properly pointed out that the orders should
? SCENE I.--"Down with the topmast." be considered as given not at once, but successively, as the emergency required. In Boswell's
Lord Mulgrave has the following note on this
direction :-“The striking the topmasts was a edition we have a highly valuable communication from the second Lord Mulgrave, showing
new invention in Shakspeare's time, which he
here very properly introduces. Sir Henry most conclusively that Shakspere's technical knowledge of seamanship must have been the all seamen whether it is better for a ship to
Manwaring says, 'It is not yet agreed amongst result of the most accurate personal observation, hull with her topmast up or down.' In the or, what is perhaps more difficult, of the power Postscript to the Dictionary he afterwards gives of combining and applying the information his own opinion :- If you have sea-room it is derived from others. Lord Mulgrave supposes
never good to strike the topmast.' Shakspeare Shakspere must have acquired this technical knowledge “by conversation with some of the has placed his ship in the situation in which it most skilful seamen of that time.” He adds, where he had not sea-room.”
was indisputably right to strike the topmast“no books had then been published on the subject.” Lord Mulgrave then exhibits the
3 SCENE II. ship in five positions, showing how strictly the “I'll manacle thy neck and feet together." words of the dialogue represent these. We
We subjoin an engraving which explains this transcribe the general observations by which threat better than any description. these technical illustrations are introduced :
“The succession of events is strictly observed in the natural progress of the distress described; the expedients adopted are the most proper that could have been devised for a chance of safety; and it is neither to the want of skill of the seamen nor the bad qualities of the ship, but solely to the power of Prospero, that the shipwreck is to be attributed.
“The words of command are not only strictly proper, but are only such as point the object to be attained, and no superfluous ones of detail. Shakspeare's ship was too well manned to make it necessary to tell the seamen how they were to do it, as well as what they were to do.
“He has shown a knowledge of the new improvements, as well as the doubtful points of seamanship: one of the latter he has intro
SCENE 1.-—"No kind of traffic,” &c. kind of traffic, no knowledge of letters, no OUR readers are aware that there is in the intelligence of numbers, no name of magistrate, British Museum a copy of the 'Essays of Mon- nor of politic superiority; no use of service, of taigne' translated by Florio, having the auto- riches, or of poverty; no contracts, no succesgraph WILLM SHAKSPERE. We subjoin a passage sions, no dividences; no occupation, but idle; from that volume which shows how familiar no respect of kindred, but common; no apparel, Shakspere was with its contents. It is an
but natural; no maņuring of lands; no use of extract from the thirtieth chapter of the first wine, corn, or metal. The very words that book, describing an imaginary nation of canni- import lying, falsehood, treason, dissimulation, bals >
covetousness, envy, detraction, and pardon, were "Me seemeth that what in those nations we never heard amongst them. How dissonant see by experience doth not only exceed all the would he find his imaginary commonwealth pictures wherewith licentious poesy hath proudly from this perfection !" embellished the golden age, and all her quaint inventions to fain a happy condition of man,
5 SCENE II.—“ Were I in England now," &c. but also the conception and desire of philo- It was usual for the Master of the Revels to sophy. They could not imagine a genuitie so license all public shows; and in 1632 there is pure and simple as we see it by experience ; nor an entry in the office-book of Sir Henry Herbert, ever believe our society might be maintained “to James Seale to show a strange fish for half a with so little art and human combination. It year.” The engraving below represents a show is a nation, would I answer Plato, that hath no of the same period.
• SCENE II.—“ The picture of Nobody.” dently means no more than straight lines. The NOBODY was a gentleman who figured on ancient passage is explained by the fact of the allusion signs; and, in the anonymous comedy of No- being to an artificial maze, sometimes conbody and Somebody,' printed before 1600, he is structed of straight lines (forth-rights), somerepresented as above.
times of circles (meanders). The engraving 7 SCENE III. “Here's a maze trod, indeed,
exhibits a maze of forth-rights. Through forth-rights and meanders !” Mr. Hunter says that forth-rights here evi
O SCENE III.
SCENE III.—"Enter Ariel like a harpy."
This circumstance is of course taken from the The engraving above exhibits a sketch re. Æneid' of Virgil. Those who maintain that cently made from a Tyrolese peasant. It is not Shakspere could not read the original send him strange that such an extraordinary appearance to Phaer's translation of the goître should in Shakspere's time be
“ Fast to meate we fall. considered as a marvel to be reckoned with But sodenly from down the hills with grisly fall to syght, the phoenix and the unicorn, and with “men The harpies come, and beating wings with great noys out
thei shright, whose heads stood in their breasts."
And at our meate they snatch, and with their clawes," &c. ACT IV.
10 SCENE I.-—"Come, hang them on this line.” italics. On the contrary, the tree, in connection MR. HUNTER, in his Disquisition on the with a grove, is printed thus,-Line-grove. Tempest,' has a special heading, “the line- 2nd. Mr. Hunter furnishes no example of the grove." He invites the friend to whom he word line, as applied to a tree, being used with. addresses the Disquisition to accompany him out the adjunct of tree or grove-line-tree, lineto the “cell of Prospero, and to the grove or grove. The quotation which he gives from berry of line-trees by which it was enclosed or Elisha Cole is clear in this matter :-"Lineprotected from the weather.” He adds, “if you tree (tilia), a tall tree, with broad leaves and look for the very word line-grove in any verbal fine flowers." The other quotation which he index to Shakespeare you will not find it: for gives from Gerard would, if correctly printed, the modern editors, in their discretion, have exhibit the same thing :-". The female line,' chosen to alter the line in which it occurs, and says Gerard,‘or linden-tree, waxeth very great,'' we now read
&c. But Gerard wrote, “The female line or In the lime-grove which weather-fends your cell.'"
linden tree waxeth,” &c.; and the word tree as The editors, then, have substituted the more
much belongs to line as to linden.
3rd. Mr. Hunter quotes “some clumsy joking recent name of the tree for the more ancient : but the change had taken place earlier than the about the line, among the clowns as they steal days of the commentators. In Dryden's altera through the line-grove with the murderous tion of 'The Tempest' (edit. of 1676) we have intent;" and he quotes as follows, omitting the above passage, with lime-grove. The effect certain words, which we shall presently give :of the change, Mr. Hunter says, is this :
“ Ste. Mistress line, is not this my jerkin? Now is the
jerkin under the line. “When Prospero says to Ariel, who comes in
Trin. We steal by line and level," &c. bringing the glittering apparel, “Come hang Now the passage really stands thus :them on this line,' he means on one of the
"Ste. Mistress line, is not this my jerkin? Now is the line-trees near his cell, which could hardly
jerkin under the line: now, jerkin, you are like have been mistaken if the word of the original
to lose your hair, and prove a bald jerkin. copies, line-grove, had been allowed to keep its Trin. We steal by line and level," &c. place. But the ear having long been familiar Is not the "clumsy joking” about lose your with lime-grove, the word suggested not the hair, and bald jerkin, of some importance in branches of a tree so called, but a cord-line, getting at the meaning? Steevens has observed and accordingly, when the play is represented, that “the lines on which clothes are hung are such a line is actually drawn across the stage, usually made of twisted horse-hair.” But they and the glittering apparel is hung upon it. were especially so made in Shakspere's day. In Anything more remote from poetry than this a woodcut of twelve distinct figures of trades can scarcely be imagined.”
and callings of the time of James I. (see Smith's This, we admit, is exceedingly ingenious; and Cries of London,' p. 15), and of which there is we were at first disposed, with many others, to a copy in the British Museum, we have the cry receive the theory with an implicit belief. A of “Buy a hair-line !” The “clumsy joking” careful examination of the matter has, however, would be intelligible to an audience accustomed convinced us that the poet had no such inten- to a hair-line. It is not intelligible according tion of hanging the clothes on a line-tree; that to Mr. Hunter's assertion that the word suga clothes-line was destined to this office; and gested a “cord-line." that the players are right in stretching up a 4th. Is it likely that Shakspere would have clothes line. Our reasons are as follow :- made these drunken fellows so knowing in the
1st. When Prospero says “hang them on this peculiarities of trees as to distinguish a line-tree line,”—when Stephano gives his jokes of “mis- from an elm-tree, or a plane-tree? Is it contress line,” and “now is the jerkin under the ceivable that the trees in Prospero's island were line,”—the word “line” has no characteristic so young that clothes could be hung upon their mode of printing, neither with a capital, nor in lower branches ? Are the branches of a line