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nication against Bruce and the Scots. The barons justified their defence of their liberties.

Their remonstrance had its effect at Rome. The holy father felt that Edward had great share of the blame in the calamilies of the war.

It was however again renewed, and the truce of thirteen years was not concluded till after two campaigns more. During this suspension of hostilities, Robert obtained absolution from the sentence of excommunication, and crushed a conspiracy at home: but on the deposition of king Edward, he - renewed the war, wrested at length from England a solemn renunciation of all claims on Scotland, and secured a peace by marrying his son David to Joan, sister to Edward III.

Thus ended the glorious conflict of Robert for the independence of his crown, after a reign of twenty-four years.


From Robert the Bruce to Queen Mary.


HE succeeding minority dooms as

D. usual the state to new calamities. David lost an excellent regent, in the

Dayid. person of Randolph ; and found soon a. nival in the person of Edward, son of John Baliol, who, supported by the English, invaded the A. D.

kingdom, was proclainied king, and like

his father did homage as, vassal of Eng. 1332.

land. VOL. XXI.


The English sovereign expelled David, his own brother-in-law, who with his queen found refuge in France.

Edward Baliol still treading in his father's foot. steps, by dismembering his kingdom in favour of the English, lost the hearts of his friends. Da.

vid returned from France, repulsed Baliol, A. D.

and was himself taken prisoner near Dur1342.


Baliol resigned his claims to Edward, A. D.

who soon after acknowledged king David, 1356.

and restored him to liberty on condition of paying a great ransom. There happened no event of importance during the remaining years of this reign but the league entered into by the two nations.

David made room for Robert II. grandA.D.

son of Bruce, and the first king of the 1371.

Stuart family. Rob. II.

The war with England was renewed, and continued with little interruption, and with less national advantage to the end of this reign.

Robert III. was in vain summoned to A.D.

do homage for his crown to Henry IV. 1390.

He invaded England, but his forces Rob. III.

were routed. He learns to his sorrow that his eldest son was starved to death by his uncle, the duke of Albany; and wishing to see cure his surviving child James, made him embark for France.

Hiş ill-fated stars threw the prince into the hands of his enemies, and the father falls a prey to his grief, on being told of his son's captivity in the tower of London.


James still remained in the hands of

A. D. king Henry, after many fruitless nego

1405. tiations; and the regency of the duke

James I. of Albany, his uncle, the murderer of his brother, was recognized in Scotland.

The accession of Henry V. did not mitigate the bardships of his fate. James was more closely confined, and even led with the English army into France.

When at length, after a long captivity restored to his kingdom, he ruled with firmness and even with severity, for the space of thirteen years, when he was barbarously assassinated. The murderers of this virtuous prince

A. D. did not escape due punishment: but

1437. the effects of the crime could not be prevented. New broils attended the minority of

A.D. James II. only seven years old, on his

1437. accession. The parliament divided the power between two nobles, who quarrelled about the possession of the king's person; the prince passed from the chancellor to the governor; and from the governor back to the chancellor, by means of the queen-mother.

Both united against the turbulent and powerful earl of Douglas'; but unable to cope with him in the field, they allured him by fair promises to the capital, where certain and immediate death awaited him and his brother. At the age of fourteen, the young

A. D. king assumed the reins of government,

1443. was reconciled to the heir of Douglas, but embroiled the whole nation in his quarrel with the chancellor and governor.

England, England, jealous of the marriage of James with Mary of Gueldres, renewed the war, but on losing the battle of Sark, listened to proposals for a truce.

About the time of the king's marriage, which was performed with royal pomp, Douglas finding his interest at court decline, retired into France.

James after rendering justice to his injured subjects, and destroying the castle of Douglas, received the earl again into favour.

But finding him not contented with the rank of the first subject, and provoked by his insolent language, the king stabbed the earl with his own hand, regardless of a safe conduct granted by himself.

This was followed, as might be expected, by a civil war, which was no sooner got over, when another arose.

Harmony being at length restored, and the truce with England again prolonged, the delusive prospect of happiness appeared for a moment. But the war soon recommenced against England; and when the earl of Huntly arrived in the camp, a fatal salute was given by the royal artillery, when one of the cannons bursting, carried off, in the flower of his age, this loving monarch from his affectionate people. A. D.

The minority of James III commences 1460.

with adjusting the difference between James III

the party of the queen his mother,

a lady of magnanimity and vigour, and Kennedy, a bishop of acknowledged merit. Their mutual friends were put in possession of the prince's person.

But But the nation had soon to lament the death of both; and the contest for power was warmly carried on between the Boyds and the Kennedys.

After his marriage with fair Margaret of Denmark, the king gave himself up to astrology, and through jealousy made away with his own brother, the earl of Mar, while the duke of Albany, the other brother, escaped to France,

The latter was invited to England, now again at war with their northern neighbours, and soon took the title of Alexander, king of Scotland, by the gift of Edward.

To make good this infamous transaction, English forces marched to the borders, whither James also repaired, but to his cost. His discontented nobles rise up against him, they put his vile minions to death before his eyes, conduct their sovereign to Edinburgh Castle, and disband the army.

Albany marched straight to Edinburgh; a treaty was concluded : he returned to his allegiance, and to his brother's favour.

The English then retired, and the liberated king committed many of the nobles to the prison which he had just left.

The reconciliation between the brothers was neither sincere nor lasting. Albany again withdrew to England; but a fresh confederacy was formed against James; the rebels prevailed on the king's son, the young duke of Rothsay, to head their army.

An engagement took place near Bannockburn ; the king lost courage at first onset : in his flight, he was thrown from his horse, and carried to the

G 3


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