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such person was seized or possessed of the premises in question, within twenty years before the committing of the act in respect to which such action is prosecuted or defence made.

$ 80. Action after entry or right of entry.

No entry upon real estate shall be deemed sufficient, or valid as a claim, unless an action be commenced thereupon within one year after the making of such entry, and within twenty years from the time when the right to make such entry descended or accrued.

$ 81. Possession presumed. Occupation, when deemed under legal title.

In every action for the recovery of real property, or the possession thereof, the person establishing a legal title to the premises shall be presumed to have been possessed thereof within the time required by law; and the occupation of such premises by any other person shall be deemed to have been under and in subordination to the legal title, unless it appear that such premises have been held and possessed adversely to such legal title for twenty years before the commencement of such action.

§ 82. Occupation under written instrument.

Whenever it shall appear that the occupant, or those under whom he claims, entered into the possession of premises under claim of title, exclusive of any other right, founding such claim upon a written instrument, as being a conveyance of the premises in question, or upon the decree or judgment of a competent court, and that there has been a continued occupation and possession of the premises included in such instrument, decree or judgment, or of some part of such premises, under such claim, for twenty years,

-the premises so included shall be deemed to have been held adversely; except that where the premises so included consist of a tract divided into lots, the possession of one lot shall not be deemed a possession of any other lot of the same tract.

§ 83. Adverse possession.

For the purpose of constituting an adverse possession, by any person claiming a title founded upon a written instrument or a

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judgment or decree, land shall be deemed to have been possessed
and occupied in the following cases :

1. Where it has been usually cultivated or improved ;
2. Where it has been protected by a substantial inclosure;

3. Where, although not inclosed, it has been used for the supply
of fuel or of fencing timber, for the purposes of husbandry, or the
ordinary use of the occupant;

4. Where a known farm or a single lot has been partly improved, the portion of such farm or lot that may have been left not cleared or not inclosed, according to the usual course and custom of the adjoining country, shall be deemed to have been occupied for the same length of time as the part improved and cultivated.

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§ 84. Premises actually occupied held adversely.

Where it shall appear that there has been an actual continued occupation of premises, under a claim of title, exclusive of any other right, but not founded upon a written instrument or a judgment or decree, the premises so actually occupied, and no other, shall be deemed to have been held adversely.

$ 85. Adverse possession under claim not written.

For the purpose of constituting an adverse possession, by a
person claiming title not founded upon a written instrument or a
judgment or decree, land shall be deemed to have been possessed
and occupied in the following cases only:

1. Where it has been protected by a substantial inclosure;
2. Where it has been usually cultivated or improved.

86. Relation of landlord and tenant.

Whenever the relation of landlord and tenant shall have existed between any persons, the possession of the tenant shall be deemed the possession of the landlord, until the expiration of twenty years from the termination of the tenancy; or, where there has been no written lease, until the expiration of twenty years from the time of the last payment of rent, notwithstanding that such tenant may have acquired another title, or may have claimed to hold adversely to his landlord. But such presumptions shall not be made after the periods herein limited.

§ 87. Descent cast.

The right of a person to the possession of any real property shall not be impaired or affected by a descent being cast in consequence of the death of a person in possession of such property.

§ 88. Persons under disabilities.

If a person entitled to commence any action for the recovery of real property, or to make an entry or defence founded on the title to real property, or to rents or services out of the same, be, at the time such title shall first descend or accrue, either

1. Within the age of twenty-one years; or, 2. Insane; or,

3. Imprisoned on a criminal charge, or in execution upon conviction of a criminal offence for a term less than for life; or,

4. A married woman; the time during which such disability shall continue shall not be deemed any portion of the time in this chapter limited for the commencement of such action, or the making of such entry or defence; but such action may be commenced, or entry or defence made, after the period of twenty years, and within ten years after the disability shall cease, or after the death of the person entitled who shall die under such disability; but such action shall not be commenced, or entry or defence made, after that period.

CHAPTER III.

Time of commencing Actions other than for the recovery of Real

Property.

SECTION 89. Limitation prescribed.

90. Twenty years.
91. Six years.
92. Three years.
93. Two years.
94. One year.
95. Action upon a current account.
96. Action for penalties.
97. Action for other relief.
98. Action by the people.

§ 89. [69.] (Am’d 1849.) Periods of limitation prescribed.

The periods prescribed in section 74 for the commencement of actions other than for the recovery of real property shall be as follows:

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$ 90. [70.] (Am’d 1849.) Twenty years.
Within twenty years :

1. An action upon a judgment or decree of any court of the United States, or of any State or Territory within the United States.

2. An action upon a sealed instrument.

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$ 91. [71.] (Am'd 1849.) Six years.
Within six years :

1. An action upon a contract, obligation or liability, express or implied, excepting those mentioned in section 90.

2. An action upon a liability created by statute, other than a penalty or forfeiture.

3. An action for trespass upon real property.

4. An action for taking, detaining or injuring any goods or chattels, including actions for the specific recovery of personal property.

5. An action for criminal conversation, or for any other injury to the person or rights of another, not arising on contract, and not hereinafter enumerated.

6. An action for relief on the ground of fraud, in cases which heretofore were solely cognizable by the court of chancery, the cause of action in such case not to be deemed to have accrued until the discovery, by the aggrieved party, of the facts constituting the fraud.

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& 92. [72.] (Am’d 1849.) Three years.
Within three years:

1. An action against a sheriff, coroner or constable, upon a liability incurred by the doing of an act in his official capacity, and in virtue of his office, or by the omission of an official duty, including the non-payment of money collected upon an execution. But this section shall not apply to an action for an escape.

2. An action upon a statute, for a penalty or forfeiture, where the action is given to the party aggrieved, or to such party and the people of this State, except where the statute imposing it prescribes a different limitation.

$ 93. [73.] Two years. Within two years :

1. An action for libel, slander, assault, battery, or false imprisonment.

2. An action upon a statute, for a forfeiture or penalty to the people of this State.

$ 94. [74.] One year. Within one year :

1. An action against a sheriff or other officer, for the escape of a prisoner arrested or imprisoned on civil process.

$ 95. [75.] Am’d 1849.) Action upon a current account.

In an action brought to recover a balance due upon a mutual, open, and current account, where there have been reciprocal demands between the parties, the cause of action shall be deemed to have accrued from the time of the last item proved in the account on either side.

§ 96. [76.] Actions for penalties, &c.

An action upon a statute, for a penalty or forfeiture given in whole or in part to any person who will prosecute for the same, must be commenced within one year after the commission of the offence; and if the action be not commenced within the year by a private party, it may be commenced within two years thereafter in behalf of the people of this State, by the attorney-general, or the district attorney of the county where the offence was committed.

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§ 97. [77.] Actions for other relief.

An action for relief not hereinbefore provided for must be commenced within ten years after the cause of action shall have accrued.

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$ 98. [78] (Am'd 1849.) Actions by the people.

The limitations prescribed in this chapter shall apply to actions brought in the name of the people of this State, or for their benefit, in the same manner as to actions by private parties.

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