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About three-fourths of the exports of so deteriorated in quality that nearly Dantzic are to England, the remainder one-fourth is unmarketable. This is goes to the other countries of Europe. the manner in which one-half the EnThis is the point whence one-half the glish supply from Europe is conveyed imports into England have been drawn to the points of exportation. The mode in the last 20 years. The wheat ex- of culture is) not more praiseworthy, ported from Dantzic, forming one-half being of a rude and primitive descripof the English supply in years of defi- tion. The fertility of the lands of cient harvest, is delivered there from Prussia, under the care even of skilthe river Vistula and its tributary the ful, affluent, and productive proprietors, Bug. The former rises in the Carpa- was not equal in the best localities to thian mountains, and flows 450 miles seven-fold the seed, and in very many through Poland and West Prussia, portions three-fold; that is, six bushels joining the Baltic at Dantzic. The reaped for two bushels sown per acre. stream becomes navigable at Cracow, In Poland the product may be seven and thence the wheat is conveyed to fold in some cases. As an instance of the sea in open flat boats, which hold the cost of producing grain in Prussia 1,200 bushels. These boats are, in and Poland, a paper prepared by Mr. seasons of leisure, constructed on the Rothe, president of government of banks of the Vistula, above the reach Dantzic, and laid before Parliament, of the water, of fir, rudely put together states, that in a year of favorable sales and fastened with wooden tree-nails. of grain, the produce of an estate of When the rains of Autumn, or the ver 2,018 acres, of which 1,040 acres were nal sun melts the snows of the moun- cultivated with grain, sold on the spot at tains, the river rises, and the boats are 72 cents per bushel, by which a loss of easily floated. A large tree running 20 per cent. was sustained, besides along the bottom and roughly cut forms rent. The actual cost of that wheat the keelson, to which timbers are se- delivered in London is $1 29 cents per cured; it rises some ten inches from the bushel, without yielding any profit floor; across this and extending to the whatever to producers. In France the sides, hurdles are laid, covered with mats average yield of wheat per acre is 14 of rye straw, which serve for dunnage. bushels, according to the returns of the The space below receives the water Minister of Commerce. In England it which rains or leaks in above and below. is about 20 bushels. The wheat is thrown in on these mats, The countries of Spain,France, Belgipiled as high as the gunwale, and um, and Great Britain, are corn-imwithout further ceremony proceeds on porting countries. In France the its voyage, carried along by the force of excess of import over export, which the stream. A small boat precedes, last was mostly to Algiers, averaged, with a man in it, sounding to avoid shift- for eight successive years, 681,266 ing shoals.

In this way the barge, bushels grain per annum, and in some conducted by six or seven men, occupies years the import is much larger. No several weeks and sometimes months country in Europe approaches France in its passage. The rain falling upon in the extent of surface appropriated to the exposed wheat soon causes it to the wheat culture. More than twogrow, and the shooting fibres form a fifths of the tillable surface of France is thick mat that serves as a protection to cultivated with wheat; that is to say, the remainder of the cargo. When the of every 100 cultivated acres, 10 are wheat is delivered at Dantzic the boat sowed with wheat. The quantity of is broken up, and the men return home land thus employed is greater in the on foot. The grown covering of the south-western departments than at the wheat is removed, and the bulk spread north ; yet the acreable product is greatout on the land to dry, being thrown er in the latter sections, a result ascribin heaps as often as necessary to pro- able both to superior cultivation and tect it from falling rain. After the greater fertility. In the aggregate, the lapse of some time and frequent hand- quantity of wheat produced in France is lings it becomes fit for storing in ware- greater than that produced in Belgium, houses well constructed for that pur- Spain, Holland, Prussia, Poland, Swepose. The wheat, however, becomes den and the British islands. The crop

is usually to the seed as 64 to 1. The pretending to ordinary intelligence, consumption of wheat is also greater much less to the government of a great than in any of the other countries. The nation. All the countries of Europe internal transportation is so costly enacted similar laws on the same plea. and difficult, that prices vary very con- Whence, then, would the corn necessiderably in different sections, being sary to produce that ruinous effect be dealways higher at the south than at the rived, if all those saga cious laws were north, from the circumstance of greater repealed or suspended, as is now the fertility. The operation of rail-roads case in Belgium? Which of all the counwill probably equalize the prices while ries that now raise grain under protecit will enhance the consumption of the tive laws, would be endowed with such whole. Notwithstanding the great prolific crops through the repeal of laws fertility of France, and its great pro- by various countries ? According to a duction of wheat, aided by protective resolution of both houses of Parliament, corn-laws, it is generally a wheat-im- communications were made from the porting country. Its agricultural re- British consuls residing in the corn sources, by the aid of science and countries, respecting the quantity of industry, may be developed almost corn that might be exported from each. indefinitely to meet its increasing The result, from all the countries of Euwants, if enterprise is stimulated by rope, north, south and east, was 2,222competition instead of being smothered 464 quarters, or 17,179,712 bushels. with parchment laws. To effect this, The consumption of wheat in Great Brihowever, a great social revolution in the tian for food and seed, has been estimated rural districts is first necessary. Belgi- at 9 bushels per head. In France probum and Holland suspended their corn ably it is not more than 5 bushels. At laws in October last, to allow of the this rate, if the whole quantity, as stated free import of food to supply the deficit by the consuls, could be regularly furoccasioned by her late bad harvests. nished, of good quality and at present priThe Russian country bordering on the ces, it would supply but two weeks conBlack Sea, has of late years sent forth sumption to France and England alone considerable quantities of grain, and the at this moment, without taking into contrade in that article has made Odessa sideration the wants of other countries. a place of importance. This year, how- Yet statesmen will declare that the reever, Italy and the Mediterranean moval of heavy duties will create sufficountries require all that it can spare cient wheat to throw out of cultivation at very advanced rates. Throughout the maritime shores of fertile countries. Europe, therefore, the general features The whole export from Dantzic, as are decreasing productions of the land, given in the above table, for 196 years, and an increasing consumption of food, is equal only to 12 months consumption by which double operation the surplus for the present population of England. of the most agricultural countries is The increase of the population of Great yearly diminishing, while the wants of Britain in the last ten years, has been the corn-importing countries are annual- 2,300,000 souls, which requires 20,700, ly becoming greater.

000 bushels more wheat per annum, to It is not a little singular that, while feed them. While this increase has such is the actual state of affairs, each . taken place, the exports from the wheat country has made laws prohibitory of the countries of Europe has diminished iniport of corn from others, on the plea, and the prices advanced, until they as expressed by the report of a commit- are not materially less than tee of the French Chamber of Deputies, in England. The quantity of wheat that " if wheat were introduced without which can be exported from Europe, is duty from the Baltic or Black Sea, our best tested by the effect which a modermaritime shores would remain unculti- ate demand produces upon prices. The vated, and the affect of a ruinous effect of high prices for any continued competition would effect more and period, is to stimulate production and more nearly the whole of our agri- produce a reaction and fall in prices, cultural population." It is difficult to even although the demand which first conceive how absurdities so gross can occasioned the advance should be conbe gravely put forth by a body of men tinued. When, therefore, a demand to


a given extent springs up, and being per bushel in the five years ending with continued for any number of years, is 1837, to an average of $1 20 in the five pot followed by a decline in prices, but years ending with 1842, had ceased, yet rather the contrary, that circumstance the price continued and continues to furnishes almost irrefragable testimony advance. Russia has suspended her that the demand is more than can corn-laws, and Holland and Belgium readily be supplied. This evidence is have remitted theirs, and the average furnished in the case of the English in Europe is now $1 43 per bushdemand and its effect upon European el! against an average of 60 cents in the prices during the last 16 years, a period United States, and $1 67 in England. sufficiently long to test the full effect The improvement in the business of alternate good harvests and deficits of Europe, which has facilitated an in England upon the European trade. increased consumption of food generalDuring the four years ending with 1832 ly, and that of wheat particularly, the harvests of England were bad, and appears to have resulted from two she imported annually 9,326,390 bush- primary causes, viz: the construction els of wheat. During the whole of of rail-roads, by which rapid and cheap that four years, the price ruled at the communication has been effected in the five leading corn-markets of the conti- mining and manufacturing districts, and nent, at an average of 35s. per quarter, in the extension of internal trade by or $1,05 cents per bushel. From 1832, customs unions, thereby removing artithe five consecutive years ending with ficial barriers to intercourse at the 1837, were of good harvests, and same time that the natural ones are England imported 341,695 bushels per overcome. annum only. The average for wheat The states comprising the Zollverein in those five years at the same ports on or Customs Union and Belgium, in the the continent, was 23s. per quarter, or official statistics, afford the most pos70 cents per bushel. In the year 1838 itive and marked indication of this imEngland imported 14,550,624 bushels, provement. The population of all the and the average of the continent rose to states now composing the Customs Un38s. per quarter, or $1 14 cents per ion, in 1834, was 23,478,120. In 1845, bushel. Now it is fair to infer that the the population of the same states was low prices of the five years ending with 25,534,321, being an increase of nearly 1837, must have ruined many corn one per cent. per annum. The revenue growers, bankrupted many estates, and of the Customs Union rose from 14, reduced the quantity of corn produced. 515,722 thalers in 1834, to 26,471,591 The 14,550,000 bushels taken by in 1845, having nearly doubled in ten England, however, appear to have ex years. This expresses of course the duhausted the stocks in the warehouses, ties upon articles imported into the Gerand raised the price 80 per cent. all man states, and at the same level of duties over Europe. That stimulus would would indicate a doubling of the trade naturally again enhance the production. in ten years. But inasmuch as that In the next year, 1839, England took the duties have repeatedly been modinear 22 million bushels, and the aver- fied, the ratio of increase in the actual age price in Europe rose to 42s. per trade must be much greater. A new quarter, or $1 26 cents per bushe). impulse was last year given to this That price was continued down to 1843, trade by means of a treaty between and the average for the five years end- Belgium and the German Union. ing with 1842, was 40s. or $1 20 per The benefits which each nation has debushel, throughout Europe. The pur- rived from their mutual concessions in chases of England during that time had favor of commerce, is already manifest reached 19,148,268 bushels per annum. in the trade of Belgium, according to In the three last years the purchases official reports. When Belgium sepaof England have averaged but five mil. rated from Holland, in 1830-31, her lion bushels per annum, and in 1845 manufacturing industry underwent a they were less than three million bush- great reverse, inasmuch as that preels. Nearly all the demand for account vious to that time, she had to supply of Great Britain which had raised the Holland and her colonies with those level of prices from an average of 70 cts. productions of mining and manufactur

ing industry in which the resources of per cent. in a few years; and having Belgium mainly consist. From the doubled in the last two years, when supply of 16 millions of people, including modified regulations and improvements Holland and her India possessions, upon the roads have facilitated the East and West, she found her con- transportation of that trade which the sumers reduced to four millions. The improved condition of the German free trade between her and Holland, states, under internal free trade, has which operated to mutual advantage created. The external commerce of under the union, was supposed to be France has increased from 1,595 milinjurious as soon as the governments lions francs in 1835 to 2,496 millions became separated, and protective tariffs francs in 1846, being near 75 per cent. were mutually interposed to preserve in five years. As the French figures home-industry from the supposed de are official, or prices fixed by law to structive effects of that competition value the products, they represent which previously had benefited it. In quantities in a comparison, and there1833 the government of Belgium fore indicate the real progress of trade projected a uniform and comprehensive in a given number of years. The manusystem of rail-ways, to the construc- facturing and trading interests of the tion of which the surface of Belgium north and west of Europe may, as a is, from its geographical position, whole, be put down as having increased adapted in a most extraordinary degree. 60 per cent. in the last ten years, and The plan finally executed was that of must consequently have produced the taking one point in the centre of the same effect upon the consumption of kingdom, and constructing lines radia- food as has the progress of the same ting from that centre to every side of interests in Great Britain. Manufacthe kingdom. The average cost of tures and trade present attractions in these roads is $42,000 per mile. The their elasticity and profits which agriprincipal lines of these roads were culture in Europe nowhere holds out. opened in 1835, since when the busi- This truth is peculiarly evident in the ness of Belgium has improved as fact, that after a quarter of a century of follows:

profound peace, steady corn-law protection in all the countries of Europe,

and large annual purchases of their Railroad receipts... .f 2,500,000....12,500,000 surplus by England for nine consecuPassengers carried..... 1,275,000.... 3,436,000 tive years, Europe, as a whole, has

failed in the last year to produce more These figures show a most extraor- than enough to feed her own people. dinary increase in the trade of these In the United States the reverse has roads, which were the chief agent in been the case. The population increases developing that extension of commerce in the ratio of 100 per cent. every 20 which the official returns of the king- years, and 80 per cent. of that populadom present. In 1831, when the sepa- tion are active, enterprising, and skilful ration took place, the general imports agriculturists, possessed of all the imand exports of the kingdom amounted provements of the age adapted to the to 202,592,865 francs. In 1835, when most prolific soil ever occupied by man, the principal lines of roads were open- and intersected by works that make the ed, it reached 359,675,121 francs; and cost of time and money in the transin 1845 it reached 676 millions of francs, portation of produce comparatively of or $126,000,000, being 60 per cent. of but little moment. Railroads and the external commerce of the United canals, aided by steam, have brought States. The most interesting feature the great valley of the Mississippi as of this vast increase is that of the transit near to London as a few years since trade, or the passage of goods across was that of the Tweed. Many of the Belgium from the sea to the interior same men who formerly produced food countries of Europe in its vicinity, and in the north of England are now applyvice versa.

This trade, previously to ing the same labor, with much greater the construction of rail-roads, amounted success, to the same object in western to but 14 millions francs. In 1845 it America. The labor that served in reached 125 millions francs, being 900 England to raise 18 bushels average,



Tons carried..

now suffices for the production of 30 on the worn-out lands bordering the bushels of wheat. The constant im- Baltic, and which yield 6 bushels for provements in the means of transpor- two sown, will successfully compete tation, and the competition of rival with the active and intelligent industry lines, are continually diminishing the of an American farmer on his ground. cost of transportation, and the Imperial which yields 30 bushels of better Parliament has now removed an hith- wheat. Although the peasants of the erto almost insurmountable artificial North of Europe are no longer called barrier to the admission of grain into slaves, they are so in fact, much in the England. From London as a centre, same manner that slavery exists in the cost of transportation will now Mexico. The peasants of Poland bold form the only difference between the a number of acres, usually 35 to 50, wheat of Western America and of the from their lord, for which they are North of England. As an off-set to the bound to work on his land two days advantage of proximity, the former in the week with oxen ; if he requires yields nearly double the quantity for them two days more he pays 6 cts. per the same amount of labor, and its pro- day, if the remaining two days of the duce are untaxed, either for rent, week, he pays such a sum as they can Church, or materially for county poor. agree upon. As he requires their In England the taxes for the two last labor usually when their own land most items have been estimated at 158. ster wants their services, it is any thing but ling per acre, or 18 cts. per bushel of willingly performed. He is bound to wheat, and this alone is equal to the furnish them with oxen in case one cost of producing wheat in the West- dies, and also their ploughs and impleern country. When the settler occu- ments, such as they are. The peasants, pies the prairie, he encounters, the first since their personal liberty was proyear, the expense of fencing and break- mulgated in 1791, may leave the estate, ing up the soil, in addition to the but they must first discharge their debts expense of seed-sowing, cutting and to its lord. This is the same tenure of harvesting. The average expense of liberty as in Mexico, and the result is all these items for the first year is less usually the same, viz, that they are than $8, and the product for the first always in debt, and are always hopeyear averages 20 bushels of sound lessly working on at the bidding of anwheat, which therefore costs 40 cents other. When the freedom of these peasper bushel. After the first year, the ants was first decreed, they were greatly expense of fencing and breaking up” alarmed, because it was viewed only in is not incurred, and the remaining the light of relieving their lords from expense will average $4 50 per acre, the duty of protecting them in old age and the yield 30 bushels, or 15 cts. per and sickness. These people live in bushel, or 5s. 6d. sterling per quarter. thatched wooden huts, in the single This wheat is the producer's own room of which the cattle and inhabitants property. Whatever it brings in mon crowd together. Their food is mostly ey is his own. It is not the property cabbage, potatoes, black bread, &c. of a lordly owner, who must keep up

• Whenever the peasant,” says Mr. his state and retinue out of the proceeds. Jacoba " has a small quantity of proIt is the result of the industry of him duce to dispose of in the market town, who conquered the soil and drew forth a portion of the money is first used to its riches by his own exertions. purchase salt, the remainder is comWhatever profit the grain yields him monly expended in intoxication." is the reward of that industry. This is the country, these the people,

It has been alleged that grain is and such their habits, from whom the produced at small cost in the serf American farmer is to apprehend sucdistricts of Europe, because labor is cessful competition in a steady English cheap. Thus, it has been alleged market for wheat. The mere suppothat under free trade in corn, the cap sition is a libel on the country. ital of England will be transferred to There can be no trade, either internal Europe, where labor can be had at 6d. or external in any country, which is not per day, and that capital employing the based on an interchange of the produce unskilful and unwilling labor of serfs of industry. In the North of Europe,

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