Imagens das páginas

H. of R.)

Pay of Members.

[MARCH 30, 1830.


they operate! The motive is too mean for avowal and to its ordinary length, to still an ample allowance. I do. concert, and a general indolence would be counteracted not intend to dispute the sufficiency of the sum which will by the heads of committees, who control the business of be received under such circumstances; but, without iothis House, and no one of whom can be supposed to be tendiog now to compromit myself to any course wheu the of the number of the delinquents. Can there be among subject shall be directly presented to us, I cannot refrain them any who, by miod, education, or character, are fitted from observing, if the reason given for it be correct, that to take an active part in our proceedings, and I trust I it should be applied to the compensation of every officer may say, without being suspected of spreading a general in the Government, at least to all whose salaries have been unction of fattery over ourselves, that a very large ma- increased in the last ten years, and which were not before jority of such are here, to countervail the sordid selfish- absolutely insufficient. Such a work of reduction must Dess of any of our associates. The insinuation includes be carried on in the gross ; and when begun, though it may more than is supposed by those who indulge in it, or who be an evidence of our sincerity and disinterestedness to believe that its existence has any influence upon our pro- becoine the first victims ourselves, it will not be esteemed ceedings. It is not that a small number are so mercenary, abroad a proof of our sagacity, if we do not give to others but either that a majority are so, or that a large portion of a chance for the honors of such martyrdom. What, sir! the majority are the auxiliaries of its influence. But, sir, money more valuable to us now, by fifty per cent., than it neither this House nor any part of it is liable to the charge; was twelve years since, when the question of compensaand I invoke the feelings of human nature in its vindica- tion was settled between this House and the people, by tion. Of whom is Congress composed of fathers and the repeal of the salary law and the enactment of the prehusbands, used to the quietndes and sweets of domestic life. sent allowance. If our purchases were confined to the When deprived of them for a few months, our hearts buro actual sustenance of life, as the same sum now will buy with a fondness to partake again of their enjoyment, wbich balf as much of fogd again as it would have done thea, eveo avarice cannot control. The affections trarople down and the consumption of men pot having increased, the every impediment in the way of their gratification ; por is proposition would bave the aspect of correctness. But their restlessness appeased until we are in possession of if it be tested by the endless expenses required and the objects of our love. The resolution has also been re- forced upon us by our social condition, by the comparacommended to us upon the ground that it will lessen the tive prices of labor tben and now, by the reduction, expense of each Congress seventy-five thousand dollars. I country, of every agricultural product, and the enbancethink a more certain way of doing it has been shown, apd, ment, by our tariff, of almost all that we use, it will be I repeat, the only difference between the gentleman and found we have already paid a full price for this nominal myself is as to the best way of doing it. It is certainly worth appreciation of money. If invested in stock, does it give considering; but I would also remark that all saving is not a larger interest than it did then! In the purcbase of economy. Ao investment is often made by individuals and property, though it may get double the quantity by metes -vations, which brings a moral and political return far be- and bounds, will it yield a greater revenue, or is the prosyond the value of the expenditure. And, udpecessarily pective increase in the value of property, in any part of spent as this seems to have been, has it been productive of our country, at a given time to come, more than will be no good? Is the ioformation spread abroad by our debates its present price with legal interest? Money is in value no credit to which Congress is entitled? Or, is it seriously what it was, though paper is not so plentiful. It is fortubelieved, as gentlemen have impatiently declared, that our date that paper does not circulate to the same extent that great evil and cause of delay is the prevalence of debate. it did twelve years since, by which an artificial value bad Sir, much of our legislation is private, strictly 80—much been given to all kinds of produce and property; but local; both involving a knowledge of many particulars which though, by its withdrawal, we have been restored to a we should have, and can only acquire by patient listening, wholesome condition, a painful reaction was produced, to enable us to vote understandingly. We have two things from which the people of this pation are not yet relieved, to do: first, to convince ourselves that we are acting right, far outweigbing to them any additional value wbich the and, by telling our reasons, to convince our constituents circumstances may seem to have given to money. Sir, that we bave done so. And uninteresting as the greater money is the same in value that it was then, and will alnumber of speeches may be that are spokeu bere, they are ways, in commercial countries dealing extensively with instructive to the people. Cut off this source of informa. others, be liable to be affected by causes which cannot be tion-close your doors against your reporters, or, what will foreseen, and the products which it buys and itself reciprobe the same, pass every thing because your committees cally act upon each other. Things may be less in price, bave recommended it, or reported a bill — reduce the rear without money being more valuable to a community at BODs for all your measures to plain narrative, divested of large • Money is on more than an exchangeable medium all the charm, collisiou, and acuteness produced by debate, for commerce, forced into use from its being a material and balf of the digoity of your Government will have more convenient than any otber we bave, as an index been sacrificed, and our respousibility be lost sight of, in of value for other things ; and the fluctuation in the quana general indifference to our proceedings. It is this indul- tity of produce wbich portions of it will buy at different gence of debate which tells the constituent of the real at times, is neither a certain evidence of general prosperity titude and weight, bere, of his representative; and it is the or declension-a proof that it is more or less valuable to expectation, upon the part of the people, that it will be the laborer, por any criterion for altering the allowance of indulged and exhibited, wbich throws into the House so such as are in the public service. many possessing the talent. They know that our nation A word, sir, upon the amendment of the honorable was spoken and written, as well as fought, into existence; gentleman from Massachusetts, [Mr. EVERETT.] It is oband that, in many perilous periods of our history, the sol-jectionable, because it will in effect produce the same dier's arm was nerved, and his heart warmed, with a hero's limitation to the first session of Congress as the original patriotism, by the animation of the orator. But, sir, I resolution; and, by a comparison of the time of meeting dismies the subject, because, as yet, we are the only com- wbich it proposes, with the ordinary periods, it will proplaiders, and our constituents have not admonished us that duce so little saving, either in time or money, that it may they think it an evil.

be viewed only as a question of convenience whether There is a remaining consideration upon which the Congress shall commence its session in November or Deadoption of this resolution has been urged, and which is cember. In my opinion, the present arrangement is more entitled to a remark. It is, that the compensation of mem- suitable to our employments as a nation. The inclement bers will be reduced, even if the session shall be extended weather of the North puts a stop to all agricultural field

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MARCH 30, 1830.)

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

(H. OF R.

work, and drives its inhabitants to ia-door occupation has proved to be more effectual than any other policy The professional man retires to his books, to prepare for which can be devised. A nation may flourish in every spring and summer labors; and, in the South and West, stage of improvement from, adventitious causes--by the from our times of harvest, the planter and farmer need the misfortunes of others, or some special good fortune that month of November to make arrangements for the trans- may attend ber own condition. Such was our auspicious portation and sale of their produce. At no time can we situation, from the formation of the present constitution come to the business of the nation, so little burdeged with until eighteen hundred and sixteen or seventeen. We had cares of our own, as that which has been fixed for the be- just emerged from provincial inferiority--the beavy band ginning of our sessions.

of an oppressive Government had been not long before A word more, sir, and I shall have concluded. I know removed, and we felt the buoyancy and elasticity of youth : there are gentlemen bere with whom I am politically asso- the change of our internal and relative political position, ciated, who will vote for this resolution, because they be- and the adoption of our new frame of Government, placed lieve the nation already oppressed by too much legislation, before us an extended and delightful prospect, which was and that, by limiting the session, there will be a greater not only enlivened and enriched in all its most beautiful probability of being relieved from much which is intended tints, but over which was thrown every charm that could to bear upon foreign commerce and southern interests. I gratify the beholder, by the situation of the Eastern world, warn those gentlemen to beware of doing an act which whose food ve supplied, and whose trade we carried. But, will permit our adversaries to augmeat our grievances, and, sir, except under these favorable external circumstances, at the same time, to take from us the privilege of com- no'nation never did prosper, no nation ever can prosper, plaint, and of exposing their principles. "Limit your ses- por even then to the extent of which she is capable, that sions, without abridging the subjects of your jurisdiction, is not supplied with the roads and means of transportation and the pressure of business will give a plausible excuse which a discreet and sober judgment shall assign to her for stopping debate. And, from his experience this ses condition. It is in vain that your manufacturers exercise sion, does not the honorable gentleman (Mr. MoDUFFIE] their ingenuity and industry; that your farmers, as respect know that it will be done? Šir, if my friends, dispirited able and honored as any portion of your community, inake by frequeat discomfiture, believe no good can be done by you and themselves intrinsically richer, by drawing from entering again the battle ground of their distinction, let the earth, appually, wealth which did not before exist, and them remember we need time to undo some of what has that your merchants establish themselves as purchasers of been done; that it is by the discussion of our principles in their several commodities, if they cannot carry them to this House. that they are to become triumphant and pational. market, except at a sacrifice which blunts enterprise. And let them be persuaded that they have recruits here Not to open these avenues, is to bury the talent entrustfrom the people, ready to aid in a renewal of the contro-ed to us. For what has a most indulgent and beneficent versy, and who are not willing to be cut off from sharing Providence spread before us, with the most liberal hand, the honors of victory or defeat.

all the bounties of nature? Is it that we shall use them as Mr. SMYTH, of Virginia, next took the floor; but the they are furnished, or, by the exercise of the intelligence hour having expired, the debate was arrested for the day. that belongs to us, bring them into the most advantageous BUFFALO AND NEW ORLEANS ROAD.

and productive activity? To maintain the affirmative of

the first branch of the proposition, might accord with the The House then went into Committee of the Whole on opinions of the individual who opposed the making of a the state of the Union, Mr. HAYNES in the chair, and re- canal, because God had placed a river near its contemsumed the consideration of a bill making an appropriation plated route, and he thought it would be sinful to aid bis for the construction of the road from Buffalo, in New works. Not so is my view. I would assiet the industry York, to New Orleans, in Louisiana, via Washington city. and enterprise of the country, in itą various branches. I

Mr. CRAWFORD rose, and remarked that the bill now would lend accommodation to its convenience, åpd I would, before the committee was one of very grave character, by every means in my power, place her in the best attijarolying most important considerations of expedieucy, túde for defence, if hostilities should arise between her apart from the constitutional difficulty with which some and other powers. I would not have a splendid Governgentlemen avowing po disposition to do so, had, involun- ment, any more than the honorable gentleman from Virtarily, he presumed, invested it. The power to construct ginia, (Mr. P. P. BARBOUR] but I am in great, very great roads and canals might once perhaps have admitted of error, if that which is intended for the benefit of the peogreat doubt, but [said Mr. C. i defer to the decision of ple--wbich is designed exclusively for the advancement more experienced and wiser men, whose opinions for the of their interest, and which is expected, by those wbo last five and twenty years, expressed in legislative acts, advocate this bill, to contribute largely to it, can make a have fixed the construction of the constitution too firmly gorgeous Government. I had supposed there was more of to be now shaken upon a basis on which this body con utility than splendor in the scheme; that comfort, com pe. stantly acts. Not an appropriation bill passes, that does tence, and ease would be found in greater ubundance in not, in some shape or other, recognise the principle. A the country it traverses ; but I never imagined, until the few days ago we acted affirmatively on a bill providing ingenious gentleman stated it, that the Government would for an expenditure incurred by the removal of obstruc- be more imposing. But, sir, if this be splendor, I favor tions from the channels of several rivers, and within five it. I wish to see the country, from Buffalo to New Orminutes have approved of one of similar character. Put- leans, gladdened by this channel of communication, which ting aside this question as rem judicatam, as one passed sball enrich the land that it passes through diffusiog upon, and so considered an almost every side, and not pleasure and wealth, and inciting to the industrious profrom the alarm which the gentleman from Virginia [Mr. auction of that wbich can be advantageously disposed of. P. P. BABBOUR) WAS 80 kindly desirous of quieting, let us Even Virginia, io her four hundred miles that it covers, proceed.

will yet rejoice, I trust, that this bill has passed—not on 8 What is the duty of a Government, or, rather, for what magnificent scale, with triple rows of elms, in imitation of is any Government instituted To promote the happiness the French minister, but on the moderate plan proposed of those who establish it, by the proper exercise of all the by a very respectable committee of this House, through its powers confided. To develop the resources of a country, honorable chairman, my colleague and friend, (Mr. HEM and of every part of it, by holding out the inducements HILL) on a plan destined, I hope, to be approved by the which facilities of transportation furnish to increased in Congress of the United Slates: dustry in exploring them, the experience of the world! Iu advocating this measure. I wish it distinctly under

VOL. VI.-89.

H. OF R.)

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[MARCH 30, 1830.

stood, that the conceded power should, in my judgment, 1 road must be carried, for the first one hundred to one hunbe confined to great, leading national objects; that it dred and twenty miles north and northwest of this city, should not be exerted frequently, or on ordinary occasions, through a country fertile and beautiful as the beart of man but on those only which would seem to require a great could desire-a region under the highest cultivation, and common effort for a great common good. Such I regard the studded with the homes of an industrious and happy popupresent project to be. Is it expedient? I think so. The lation. It will afford them a channel of direct communiseat of the General Government is the heart of the body cation with the capital. They will have a choice of marpolitic. From it must flow to every part of the country, kets, at which they can dispose of the products of their in peace or in war, the regulations, laws, orders, and farms, that embrace all the varieties proper to the climate. instructions it was organized to furnish and give. By a It will cross, at various points, the several turnpikes leadspeedy diffusion of intelligence and information amonging to Baltimore and Philadelphia, and will enable mapy the people of what the Government does or does not do, who choose to direct their course towards those cities, to of the course of policy it adopts or abandons, you can do so with increased ease. In its more western course, it alone preserve attachment to it. That every facility should must likewise strike two, at least, of the Peopsylvania cabe afforded for that purpose, is of vital and engrossing in-nals, and will facilitate an approach to, or departure terest. And here let me ask, sir, in the language of my from, them. Where the country through which it passes friend and immediate colleague, (Mr. RAMSEY] bave you is not eminently fertile, it abounds in coal and iron, which a single passage out of Washington provided by the Gene- will probably make the resources of Pennsylvania, unfoldral Government! By what means are you to place the ed and opened as they soon will be, greater than those of citizens of this very exteusive empire upon a footing of any of her sister States. equality, so fully, and effectually, as by the expeditious For military purposes, what are its advantages? Many dissemination of information ? Can those on its remote and commanding. As has been wisely said by my very borders form so correct an opinion of the merits and much respected colleague, [Mr. HEMPHILL] the strength of demerits of their public agents, as those whose locality a country rests not so much in the number of its populaplaces them bearer, unless you transmit to them the ma- tion, as in the facility with which masses of its defenders terials of which alone opinion must be made up! I am can be thrown together. This road will not only afford acquainted with no arrangement by which those who ad- every advantage for sending the earliest instruction to your minister the public affairs can be brought so immediately northern and northwestern frontiers, and enable you, if under the view and observation of their constituents, either need be, to transport the munitions of war and provisions, for approbation or for censure, as by the rapid diffusion at a small cost, to your army, but it will meet, at every of useful knowledge. This Government depends essen. turn, some line of communication from an Atlantic point, tially, both for the most beneficial results and for durabili- which shall be either endangered, or wbich can furnish inty, upon the intelligence and virtue of those who have formation of any enemy that may be on the seaboard. The the happiness to live under it. Give them the first, and roads and canals which irrigate and fertilize that whole the last will be strengthened; and both will be, to the section of country, do not run parallel with the proposed noble structure we have reared, a foundation and support road, but will be crossed by it at as many centres as this that must secure its perpetuity.

famed city contains. If we had had such a road during the To commence with the northern part of this road: late war, we sbould have saved more money, several What are its anticipated mail advantages ? Very great times told, than the entire improvement from Buffalo to The travel from Washington to Buffalo, by way of Balti- New Orleans will cost, if it shall be authorized. So much more, Philadelphia, and New York, is about six hundred for the northern end. and seventy miles. On this route the mail can be carried Are there sufficient reasons to justify the making of the between the extremes, when steamboats are in operation road from Washington to New Orleans ! It appears to on a part of it, in six days; at other times, seven days are me there are. It holds out to you great facilities and inoccupied. Stage lines were established, some two or creased despatch in the conveyance of the mail. It was three years ago, from Harrisburg to the western part of carried in December, 1827, (Postmaster General's letter) New York, by which the distance on the shortest stage between the two cities in nineteen days, over twelve hunroute was reduced to about three hundred and ninety dred and fifty-nine miles, along the metropolitan route miles, over which the mail is conveyed in seven days. If certain improvements in bridges, and the removal of ob& road were made from this city to Buffalo, by the nearest struotions, it was thought, would enable the Government practicable route, it could be transported between them to transport it in seventeen days, and it was believed a in less than four days. (Postmaster General's letter of 28th good turnpike, on the shortest line, would put it in the December, 1827.) What an immense saving of time? Will power of the Postmaster General to carry it through in gentlemen tell me that it is no advantage to have the mail eleven days; add, if you please, three days for difference carried in half the time is not despatch the life of your between the contemplated road and a turnpike, and you post office! Here have we been, during the session, re- have a saving in time of at least three, perhaps five days. ceiving petitions from a very large number of our consti

. In a commercial point of view, many advantages must retuents, larger, probably, by many to one, than those who sult from it. It traverses a country abundant to overflow. bave expressed their views on any other subject, request- ing in every thing that can contribute to the comfort and iog us to stay the mail only for one day, and that the most enjoyment of life. The surplus products can be carried on holy one ; and by our committee we turn a deaf ear to their it to those streams which it strikes at right angles, and entreaties, insisting that great inconvenience will result down which they can be cheaply floated to the seaboard, from the delay-that if we grant their request it will be or some intermediate mart. The great Cumberland valley, felt throughout all the mail ramifications of our extended and many parts of the southern country, will yet be busy domain. For the sake of the argument admit it. How and happy in the establishment of manufactories, to and great, then, must be the advantage we would have by from which this road will afford facilities for carrying the gaining half the time; by the transmission of intelligence raw material and the manufactured article. For war, it în four-in less than four-instead of seven days! Will will enable you to convey your troops and their provisions, it not pervade, sir, the most remote districts of our north- not along its whole distance, but, as the honorable gentleem and northwestern borders ? To enlarge upon this topic man from Tennessee (Mr. Blair] remarked, on particuappears to me to be unnecessary.

lar portions of it, and on all parts of it at different times. Our attention is next drawn to the commercial consider- Perhaps troops will never be marched from Buffalo to ations which bear upon this question. The bed of the New Orleans, or the reverse, but they will be moved from

MARCH 30, 1830.)

Buffalo and New Orleans Road,

(H. or R.

intermediate points to either, or to Washington. The man's) scale, and taking thence a part of his gold, had proposed route is about equidistant from the seaboard behaved unjustly, a more apt illustration of the duty and and the Mississippi; they will be auxiliary to each other, the justice of the Government might have been found, in or, if gentlemen prefer it, I have no objection that the road likening it to a father, whose sons, having been to differbe considered ancillary to the river.

ent markets, severally brought in their contributions to the I may be asked why I favor the western route. And common stock, which the old gentleman distributed among it may be thought, perhaps with some propriety, that, as the objects of bis bounty and affection, (whose industry this matter does not belong to my parish,” I should not had furnished the treasure,) pot in equal proportions, but interfere. Having, however, expressed a preference, I will according to the wants and necessities of each. Is not say why. It lies generally through a better country- this the every-day course of parental duty and affection 1 will require less bridging, not much more than half that Bnt the gentleman's argument, if admitted, will not save either of the others demands—will not have more than him. I confess I have not sufficient acumen to perceive two-thirds as much causeway-and, lastly, although it its force, but think it proves directly the reverse of that for does not now, will, in my opinion, very soon, and in all which it was adduced. The road passed over a section of time thereafter, have a larger population. At present its country that bas received little or no part of the public white inbabitants exceed in pumber those of the eastern favor. The sums—the vast sunis tbat bave flowed into lide, with all its advantage of being dotted with towns and the public coffers since the peace of eighteen huodred and cities, which have given it the name of the metropolitan fifteen, amounting to upwards of three hundred millions of route.

dollars, bave been expended chiefly on the seaboard; and the What are the objections to this bill? They are very interior never will get any of the country's treasure, if you numerous, but, in my mind, not well founded. The ho do not allow them internal improvements. So much for norable gentleman from Virginia (Mr. P. P. BABBOUR] the gentleman's equal distribution, or distribution exactly stated, that although the General Government was a great proportioned to contribution. whole, each State, each individual, would feel his own in England, we are informed from the same respectable dividuality, and pursue his own interest , though willing to source, is at this moment retrenching to the utmost

, and do somethiug for the public. I admit it and hold it to be deafening her King and ministry with applications for rea strong argument for appropriations, such as that con- lief from wretchedness. Wby that country was named, templated by the measure under debate. It is according I know not, unless it was for the inference that her preto the most deliberate judgment I can form, the solemn sent condition might be traced to her manufactories, her duty of statesmen, of gentlemen on this floor, to exert roads and canals. If that was the purpose, I take leave to themselves to the uttermost, preserving their principles deny the justness of the conclusioni, So far from her miand a rigid regard to duty, to maintain and increase the sery being attributed to her occupations and improveharmony of the nation. Climate, diversity of habits and ments, she must have long since supk without them; pursuits arising out of it, contrariety of interest and dif- they alone bave sustained her under å pressure that has ference of sentiment proceeding from these and other been borne until the world is amazed. Her national debt, causes, open the chasm alreudy tov wide. Let it be the that great source of her pauperism and wretchedness, bas pleasing duty of those who are now together, in the enveen

magnifying for a very long time, but was increased joyment of the public coufidence, to repose upon the in- seven or eight fold, by the wars that arose out of the tegrity and purity of each other, and to make a common French revolution-conflicts that derived their sharpesl effort to smooth the asperities which grow out of our seve- acrimony from the alleged secret treaty supposed to have ral conditions—to level the inequalities which must be been signed at Piloitz, by which the parties to it were met with on 80 wide a surface. To contribute in the bound to impose the royal family upon France, and wbich smallest degree, to this, the most desirable of all political attempt to interfere with their internal government, the ends, would give me a pleasure that no other public agen- French nation nobly and successfully resisted. To this cy offmine could possibly yield. Is not the bill calculat- debt, thus incurred, is mainly to be ascribed her present ed to aid this consummation! Let us have something in unfortunate situation. common, and not look with cold and heartless indifference But this measure, if successful,' will have a tendency, upon this Goveroment, as if we had no interest in it. If say several gentlemen, to keep up a large revenue system. We cannot be bound by some cord of regard, let us at My sentiments on this subject are well known. I trust the least see some evidence that we are connected.

present policy will be adhered to that no repeal of the Again, we ere informed by the same honorable gentle laws imposing the tariff will take place, until a full and man, rightly, I think, that the consumers pay the duties sair experiment has been made; which will result, I doubt on imports; and that, as the money in the public treasury not

, in establishing the wisdom of the course pursued for is raised equally off the people, it should be equally dis. the last two years—repealed they shall not be, if my vote, tributed, or rather that it should be distributed in the same and any little influence I may possess, fairly exerted, can proportion in which it was contributed. Sir, this looks prevent it. Immense interests have been staked on the well in theory, but it cannot be carried into practice. faith of the Government, and ruio, utter ruin, would inThe Government was constituted for the common benefit, volve a large portion of the middle and eastern States, if and to promote the interest of the whole. Some portions this faith should be broken. Would bonorable gentlemen of the empire will require the expenditure of more money themselves desire, if their wishes could effect it, the imthan others, and it will not answer to give one district mediate repeal of all duties? Would they not prostrate more than it needs, because it contributed it, or another in one common desolation the manufacturer and the merless, because it paid not so much as its necessities require. chant, and, through them, a very great proportion of the The barbor of one city may call for an iminense expendi- whole community! The duties will

, therefore, last long tore-nature has made another perfect ; very large fortifi- enough, at all events, for this road. Why is it, if the taeations may be esteemed necessary at one position, as in the riff operates unequally, if injustice is done to the South, gentleman's owo State, at Old Point Comfort, or Fortress that the opposition I am now combating comes from the flouroe, and Castle Calhoun; but who complains of that? complaining quarter Here is some little atonement, No one, that I am aware of; and no one should. I think, some little boony offered; but it is contemptuously rejecttherefore, instead of supposing that he and another per-ed. We ask what we may be allowed to scatter among son were weighing one bundred pounds of gold in sepa- the very people who, by their representatives, set forth, rate scales, designing each to contribute equally, and that as a grievance that money is exacted from them, tbe idenhis partner, by putting his fingers into his (the gentle. I tical money so collected, or a part of it, and the permis

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H. OF R.)

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

(MARCH 30, 1830.

sion is withheld. Can we do more unless we destroy our lo, in the State of New York, passing by the seat of the selves to gratify others ?

General Government, in the District of Columbia, to the The honorable gentleman from Tennessee, [Mr. Pork) is city of New Orleans, in the State of Louisiana, whose duty of opinion that this bill combines many local interests, it shall be, or a majority of them, to examine the ground, which be deprecates as a great evil. Pray, is not all le- and lay out said road," &c. It is provided in the second gislation of local operation, and the more extensive the section that the said road shall be laid out four rods in more comprehensive! but then, this produces delusion, the width, and desiguated on each side by a distinguishable delusion of whole masses of men, and entire sections of mark on å tree, or by the erection of a stake or monument, country. I wonder if, by possibility, there might not be sufficiently conspicuous, at every quarter of a mile of the some delusion on the other side. The gentlemao reminds distance, where the road pursues a straight course, and on me of the juryman who differed with his fellows, and, upon each side where an angle occurs in its course." being brought into court, said they were the most obstipate The third section is as follows: «That the said commiseleven men he had ever met with; he could not bring them sioners, after they bave laid out the said road, shall preover to his view of the case.

sent to the President an accurate plan of the same, with He speaks of the number of routes that have been sur- its several courses and distances in each State, accompaveyed, which is argument against him, as it goes to prove nied by a written report of their proceedings, describing the great anxiety of the public mind on the subject-the the marks and monuments by which the road is designated, great interest that is taken in this road, which we bave and the face of the country through wbich it passes, and heard represented as likely to be of no utility if made; the roads, or parts of roads, if any, in the course of the not so think those who live near its projected course, and road so laid out by this act, which, in their opinion, shall appreciate its value. But the people are deluded—they need no alteration, wbich said roads, or parts thereof, 80 are blinded and lost to reason, by the offer to spend finished, shall remain upaffected by this act.". their own money among them. Where, I would ask, It is made the duty of the commissioners, by the fourth should it be expended, if not among those who own it ? section, to " report to the President an estimate of the If it be a delusion, I fancy it will

, unlike most other er- expenses of the said road, wbich, in their opinion, will rol's, abide with the people, and continue to close their be necessary for its formation, graduation, and final com eges to what gentlemen are pleased to call their true in- pletion, on the most approved plan, without the applicaterest. When you fioally select one line, it is said you tion of stone or gravel, except where they shall be found offend all those who live upon the others, and this is presso indispensably necessary to its use; and if the same does ed as a good reason for not moving further; does it not pot on an average exceed the sum of fifteen hundred doloccur to gentlemen that the remark, if of force, would lars, including necessary bridges and causeways, per mile, put an end to ail iinprovement whatever! Of the many the President is hereby authorized to take prompt and gurveys made, or to be made, I would choose the best, and effectual measures to cause said road to be made throughI would say they should be few. I would not, nor will I, out the wbole distance." vote for all the projects op foot, or whicli have been re It is believed that the preparatory steps by the commisported to this House; nor do I think the public treasury sioners, of surveying, laying out, and marking the road, should be burdened with annual appropriations for sup- and making a detailed report of their proceedings, cannot porting and keeping in repair any great channel of com- be taken in less than two, perhaps three years ; and that munication that has been, or hereafter may be, con during this period an expense will not be incurred that structed But this road must be turnpiked, say gentle shall exceed ten thousand dollars per appum ; and that med; I do not know what others intend, but I do not look afterwards, if the contingency happens that shall make it beyond the present bill, nor think of a turnpike. Lest how the duty of the President to commence the construction of ever the estimate, mentioned by the honorable member the road, not more than four, or perhaps five hundred from Tennessee, (Mr. POLK] of twenty-one millions of thousand dollars will be required annually. dollars should alarm, I will say that I understand the road Let us now ascertain the state of the public debt, its in Ohio, equal to any in the world, to be now constructing exact amount, and the probable time of its extinguishfor between five and six thousand dollars per mile; and, ment. taking this as our datum, the whole distance from Buffalo Debt on 1st January, 1830,

$48,565,406 50 to New Orleans would not, even if turnpiked, cost pipe Interest to the 1st January, 1831, 2,913,924 39 millions. The honorable gentleman speaks pleasantly of tapping the treasury, if it be plethoric; admonishes us that

$1,479,880 89 it is a dangerous operation, and that it requires a consulta Deduct sum then applicable to its extion of the seniorg---not the bichelors of medicine, but the tinction, according to the estimate M. Dis in politics. I am content to be regarded as a jun of the Secretary of the Treasury, 11,600.000 00 ior, at least for the present; but what if the seniors are timid, or máyhap unskilled, or, with a rare exception or

39,979,330 89 two, adhere to the old practice, rejecting modern improve Interest to 1st January, 1832,

2,398,759 86 ments ab the innovations of heedless and incautious men; insisting that to other guide shall be followed but lectures

42,378,090 74 heard or writtel, some twenty, or thirty, or forty years Deduct sum then applicable to debt, ago? Under these circumstarices, the office must be agsum by Secretary's estimate,

12,000,000 00 ed by those who may be estimated lightly; nothing else is left for it, they must use the knife, or the patient will die.

30,878,090 74 The last argument I sball notice, and it is one which all From which deduct two years' interest the honorable gentlemen wlio have spoken against the at three per centum, on thirteen bin have furged, is, that they wish the public debt paid millions two hundred and pinety-six before we embark in the project. This bill, sir, interferes thousand two hundred and fortynot with its discharge; if it did, I should be the last man nine dollars and forty-five cents, to advocate it. What does the bill provide The first (that sum baving in above calculasêction enacts "that the President of the United States tion, been put at six per centum, be, and he is hereby, authorized to appoint, by and with while it only carries three,)

797,774 96 the advice and consent of the Senate, three disinterested citizens of the United States, to lay out a road from Buffa

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