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it. Still, the main figures are striking: Joyeux the imaginative, and his three coadjutors, the scientist, the priest, the poet. These last are not presented with a firm enough conception of character to vitalize them everywhere, but they serve what is perhaps their chief purpose, to carry us to the end of the first and longest act and give us the idea that is to be developed. The imagination has its ideal, which is to be realized in love and at the point of realization vanishes away. Rosalys dies and Joyeux is, for the time, led away by witch will o' the wisps. But in the last act he revives his oldtime love; Rosalys rises for a brief half hour, and when she again passes away he goes with
Presumably Mr. Moore had not definitely in mind more than to create certain passionate figures and to embody a poetic feeling. Im plicit in such presentation is, however, an idea, or perhaps we should not call it more than a sentiment. Our attention is aroused and held by the ideas that gather in our minds around this figure of the imaginative man and his effort to give form to his imaginings, his strivings with the impossible, his deception at the hands of vulgar cheats. But whither does all tend? Mr. Moore does not seem to have his problem clearly in mind. At least we find no real solution.
But no play should be judged as an allegory unless it be frankly conceived as such. This play is not it presents to us romantic figures, which do something to arouse ideas in our mind as all figures must. But it is better merely to take the people as people and to lose oneself in the story of emotion and exaltation, and to be content with an adumbration here and there of the wider meaning beyond. We do not, ourselves, fully appreciate the full purport of the third act. But the poetry of the first act especially, and of the last, carried us well along over whatever did not make its appeal.
To write a play and in verse is rather a daring thing-although now there are a number to keep one in countenance - but Mr. Moore has come well through all dangers with his venture. EDWARD E. HALE, JR.
MR. RICHARD MANSFIELD'S acting version of "King Henry V.," as lately produced with marked success, is published in a most attractively-printed volume by Messrs. McClure, Phillips & Co. An Introduction by Mr. Mansfield, some notes on the heraldry of the play, and two photogravure illustrations, are included.
SOME RECENT BOOKS OF TRAVEL.*
As in this age more people travel, and travel more often, and to more distant places, books of travel must correspondingly increase. But the more be-travelled our sphere the less becomes the opportunity for a really new book dealing with the previously unknown and telling of strange men and beasts. All the books in our present group treat of parts of the earth more or less familiar from the writings of previous travellers; yet these books have all of them a certain raison d'être, either in the personality of the writer, the timeliness of the subject, or the general utility of the whole work.
Mr. G. W. James's hand-book to that wonderful region, "In and around the Grand Canyon," comes largely under the last head. "A canyon," says the author,
"Is not a deep, narrow, gloomy gorge, into which the sun fails to shine even at midday. It is, in reality, a series of canyons one within and below the other. Picture one canyon, a thousand feet deep and ten or twelve miles across; below this, another canyon, but two miles less in width and a thousand feet deeper than number one; then still another, two thousand feet deeper and four miles narrower, followed by yet another, deeper still and more miles narrower, until the inner gorge of granite is reached, through which the roaring river flows, and you will have a better idea than ever before."
This describes the Grand Canyon, but many canyons are by Mr. James's own account narrow and gloomy. After a general description of the Colorado region and some historical chapters, Mr. James takes up the Grand Canyon and its tributaries in detail. He regards the Bridal Veil Falls in the Havasu as the "Most exquisitely beautiful waterfall in the world.
*IN AND AROUND THE GRAND CANYON. By George Wharton James. Illustrated. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co. BETWEEN THE ANDES AND THE OCEAN. By William Eleroy Curtis. Illustrated. Chicago: H. S. Stone & Co. A SUMMER JOURNEY TO BRAZIL. By Alice R. Humphrey. Illustrated. New York: Bonnell, Silver & Co.
THE PARADISE OF THE PACIFIC.. By G. Waldo Browne. Illustrated. Boston: Dana Estes & Co.
THE PEARL OF THE ORIENT. By G. Waldo Browne. Illustrated. Boston: Dana Estes & Co.
SPANISH HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS. By Katharine Lee Bates. Illustrated. New York: The Macmillan Co. AMONG THE BERBERS. By Anthony Wilkin. Illustrated. New York: Cassell & Co., Ltd.
ST. KILDA. By Norman Heathcote. Illustrated. New York: Longmans, Green, & Co.
AN AMERICAN GIRL'S TRIP TO THE ORIENT AND AROUND THE WORLD. By Christine Collbran. Illustrated. Chicago: Rand, McNally & Co.
FALAISE, THE TOWN OF THE CONQUEROR. By Anna Bowman Dodd. Illustrated. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co. FORBIDDEN PATHS IN THE LAND OF OG. Illustrated. Chicago: Fleming H. Revell Co.
There is nothing in the Yosemite that, for rich delicacy of beauty and rare combination of charms, can equal it. On the left and right are towering cliffs, two thousand feet high, of red sandstone. At your feet is rich green grass, and a delicate gauzy growth, as fine as asparagus grass, which covers the ground with fairy-like lace and makes a carpet fit for a Midsummer Night's Dream' dance. Above, just on the edge of the fall, are several trees, rich with their new dress of spring leaves, with the red mountains and azure sky, as richly blue as that of the Mediterranean. Now, with such a background, enjoy the fall-Wa-Hath-peek-ha-ha." Mr. James gives some account of the Havasupai Indians in the canyon district, and an intensely interesting narrative is given of Mr. Bass's experiences in attempting to reach these Indians. The work is to be recommended to the general reader and to the tourist. The quotations are extensive, and the illustrations are numerous and excellent.
Mr. W. E. Curtis has collected his South American letters to the Chicago "Record" into a volume which he entitles "Between the Andes and the Ocean," describing all the western countries from Panama to Patagonia. Mr. Curtis gives quite a full account of the Panama Canal.
"The advocates of the Panama canal lay great stress upon the fact that it has a good harbor at either end, capable of receiving the largest ships, while the Nicaragua canal has none, and the two that must be built present serious engineering difficulties; that a good railroad is now in operation along the entire route of the Panama canal, while one will have to be constructed in Nicaragua; that the supreme difficulties of the Panama route have already been developed and overcome, while those of the Nicaragua route are unknown; that nothing of an experimental character is proposed on the Panama canal, while several projects in the Nicaragua scheme involve elements of novelty that are without precedent; that the length of the Panama canal is only forty-six miles, while that of Nicaragua is four times as great; that there are no volcanos on the isthmus, while there are several in Nicaragua; that earthquakes are practically unknown here, while in Nicaragua they are frequent; that the concession from the government of Columbia for the Panama canal is complete and satisfactory and there is only one nation to deal with, while two nations must be consulted in everything that involves the Nicaragua canal, and the concessions are complicated with conditions that are likely to prove embarrassing."
There is some historical matter in Mr. Curtis's book, but the main topic treated is the industrial, social, and political life of the people. The volume forms, on the whole, a very readable description of the Western South America of to-day. There are a number of illustrations and a fair index, but no map.
"A Summer Journey to Brazil," by Miss Alice R. Humphrey, is a brief and pleasant record of a trip to Rio Janeiro, Pernambuco,
Bahia, Petropolis Sanctos, and Sao Paolo. The author has some sharp criticism for the U. S. consular service at Sanctos, and her chapter on this subject ends with this quotation from a letter written by an American in Sao Paolo, dated July 6, 1900:
"What does our government mean by sending out an Italian Priest as Consul to Santos? If he were only a priest who had practically withdrawn from active functions, it would not be so bad; but this one makes it his first duty to visit the newspapers and declare that he will not allow the duties of the consulate to interfere with his higher ecclesiastical functions, and as a proof of this, he left the duties of the office yesterday and came up to say a thirtieth day Mass for the soul of a person connected with the 'Diario Popular,' and had it advertised far and near."
As far as it goes the book is a useful and readable sketch, and contains a number of appendices of value.
Under the title "The Paradise of the Pacific" Mr. G. Waldo Browne gives us a short general account of the Hawaiian Islands. The volume includes a description of the islands, a résumé of their history, with special chapters on the religious history, and an account of the present status. The condition of the Japanese and Chinese have particular mention.
"The Japanese appear to be the disturbing factor in the islands at present. There are many educated and intelligent Japanese on the islands, who are prominent in business and have thrifty homes, but the class most largely drawn hither is ignorant, impetuous, and hard to control. If industrious they are ambitious, and, seeing better than the Chinese the real inwardness of their situation, are dissatisfied with it, waiting, watching for the opportunity to strike a blow at the power which attempts to hold them in check. There is too much of the Yankee about them to be held long in surveillance, and, with their high percentage of population, what the outcome is to be is hard to forecast, though probably no cause for serious alarm."
The book is popular in tone and profusely illustrated.
A companion volume to the book just noticed bears the rather fanciful title "The Pearl of the Orient." It is a brief compilation of matter relating to the Philippine Islands, and while popular in tone is fairly accurate on matters of fact. There are chapters on the geography and history of the islands, on the animals, on the resources, and the volume closes with a chapter on "America in the Orient." The bola or native knife is thus described:
"The most common type used in warfare is between two and three feet in length, including the handle, and has a wide, thick blade edged like a guillotine. When wielded by a fanatic Philippino in the heat of battle, it is a formidable instrument of death, which is capable of cutting a human head clear from its seat at a single
blow, split the body from shoulder to hip, or cleave the skull in twain. At the call to charge, these native troops discard all other weapons and spring to the wild attack hand to hand, wielding the bola with terrible effect." The illustrations are profuse and well-printed. In Miss Christine Collbran's account of "An American Girl's Trip to the Orient and around the World" we have the fresh impressions of a young person conveyed pleasantly enough in a very familiar epistolary style. One amusing incident the author thus describes :
"While out walking I met a sort of procession, marching down one of the streets of Yokohama, which amused me immensely. It consisted of fifteen or twenty men carrying long poles with white banners fastened to them, or with a mock rooster perched on the top, fol
lowed by a brass band of about eight instruments, playing, or rather trying to play, Marching through Georgia.' Each man seemed to be playing just as he felt, and their laudable endeavors to express their different moods in different keys was not all that could be desired from a musical point of view. Apparently, it did not matter in the least if he were a few notes too high, or too low, or if he were playing faster or slower than the rest; so taking it altogether, I was only just able to recognize our good old campaigners' song. The Japanese, themselves, seemed to be enjoying it thoroughly, if we may judge by the crowds that followed in the wake of this comical band."
The bulk of the book is given to Japan and Korea, other countries receiving but very meager notice.
Among the Berbers of Algeria," by Mr. Anthony Wilkin, is "a popular record of a journey undertaken with scientific objects." These objects were of an archæological and anthropological nature, the special purpose being "to trace if possible their [the Berbers']
connection with the most ancient races of Egypt by the methods of anthropology, by collections of pottery, of designs, of physical measurements, and by observation of their everyday occupations, and of the monuments of their ancestors.' This object the author achieved. The Berbers, unconquered by Roman or Arab, but at length subjugated by the French, are divided into two tribes, the Chawia and Kabylia, both of which were visited by our author. He finds the Berber has many good traits.
"Whether in the olive-clad mountains of Kabylia or the terraces of their Aurasian fastnesses they are white men and in general act like white men. Among them the virtues of honesty, hospitality, and goodnature are conspicuous. It is not their misfortune alone that the lowlands know them no more; not their misfortune only that Mohammedanism has debarred them from entering, as they would otherwise have entered, on the path of European progress and liberality: it is the misfortune of the whole civilized world. Descendants of a mighty race whose culture once spread
from the Atlantic to the Red Sea and the Hauran from Crete to Timbuctoo and the Soudan, there are still to be found among them the vestiges of the arts and sciences, of the spirit of conquest, of the capacity for
self-government, which, if developed, would make them again a great nation."
The book is of interest and value as giving us some acquaintance with this little-known race. The illustrations are exceptionally fine.
A pleasant account of that most remote of the British Isles, St. Kilda, is prepared by Mr. Norman Heathcote. This "last of the sea-girt
Hebrides" is famed in Britain for its uncouth natives and for its multitude of sea-birds. The author presents a brief history of St. Kilda, followed by chapters on the island as it is to-day, boating and climbing experiences, the birds, and the "St. Kilda of the future." A curious habit of the Fulmar Petrel is thus described ":
"On the approach of an enemy, the fulmar squirts oil at him in self-defense. I suppose the operation is of use to them against some of their foes; and though it does not avail them against the St. Kildan fowler, it is on record that one gallant fulmar succeeded in killing a man by this same process. It was not in St. Kilda, and it was some time ago. The said man, being unacquainted with this little habit of the petrel tribe, was so astonished at receiving a stream of nasty-smelling oil in his face that he fell off the ladder, by means of which he had obtained access to the nest, and was killed. My experience is, that it is a very poor sort of weapon, as the range is so short. I doubt if the stream of oil will carry more than a couple of feet on the level." The illustrations are good, and the author's map is probably the best yet made.
Miss Katharine Lee Bates's "Spanish Highof a tour along the regular routes, the only ways and Byways" is the vivacious account
Byway" being a trip through the Basque provinces. The author's impression of the Spaniard is that he is not only not lazy, as often reputed, but intensely active. She gives a graphic picture of a Spanish Carnival.
Squeaking and gibbering, the maskers, unrebuked, took all manner of saucy liberties. A stately old gentleman rose from his cushion in a crested carriage to observe how gallantly a bevy of ladies were beating off with a hail of confetti and bonbons an imploring cavalier who ran by their wheels, and when he would have resumed his seat he found himself dandled on the knees of a grinning Chinaman. Sometimes a swarm of maskers would beset a favorite carriage, climbing up beside the coachman and snatching his reins, standing on the steps and throwing kisses, lying along the back and twitting the proudest beauty in the ear or making love to the haughtiest. This all-licensed masker, with his monstrous disguise and affected squeal, may be a duke or a doorkeeper. Carnival is democracy." The book contains a pleasant chapter on the gypsies, and one of some length on the Choral games of Spanish children, a disquisition which
should be of interest to the pædologist. illustrations are good, but there is neither map nor index.
An enthusiastic, vivacious description of Falaise and its environs by an intimate friend and observer, may be found in Mrs. Anna Bowmon Dodd's volume entitled "Falaise, the Town of the Conqueror.' The effect of Normandy landscape is thus described:
"Little by little, the subtle and satisfying charm of this Normandy landscape was producing an effect not wholly new to me, at least. So penetrating have I felt this charm to be, that in just such Normandy scenes, and just such warm, balmy days, I have had that rarest of human sensations, - a satisfied, completed sense of perfect enjoyment. The man or woman who loves nature, sanely, can be made more entirely content, I believe, in the rich inland parts of this marvelous Normandy province than in any other country." The author visited the Falaise Fair in a charà-banc, and in brisk style she narrates the scenes there witnessed. A large portion of the volume concerns the history of the city. We have rarely seen better photographic illustrations than those which adorn this book.
"Forbidden Paths in the Land of Og" is the narrative of a trip by three missionaries into the region beyond Jordan. Their expedition was to the west and north of the Sea of Galilee and included visits to Golan, Gadara, Mizpah, and Jerash. Of the latter place, where are found the ruins of the ancient and magnificent Gerasa, the account is quite full and interesting.
"A Greek theatre of the ancient type forms a capital camping-place for modern travellers. Historically it awakens myriad thoughts of regal splendor and Christian martyrdom. Practically it lends itself to the real necessities of the tourists in affording shade and shelter, semi-seclusion, and excellent stabling for the animals. Incongruous as this may sound, a grand theatre reduced to the level of tourists' conveniences, yet so it was. Camp was pitched in the midst of the open arena. Round about on three sides rose the semicircle of stone benches, in sixteen tiers, one above another, capable of seating three or four thousand spectators."
The book is full of Biblical allusions, and should be of especial use to Bible students. HIRAM M. STANLEY.
MR. W. GARRETT Horder's "Treasury of American Sacred Song" is reissued, in an enlarged edition, by Mr. Henry Frowde. Something like thirty new poems are included, but the price of the volume has been reduced. The editor gives a broad meaning to the word "sacred," and this admirable book is far more than a mere collection of hymns. In fact, hymns are rather far to seek in these pages.
WAR AND POLITICS IN SOUTH AFRICA.*
The wish is father to the thought in nearly all recent books which treat of the war in South Africa. Two of the group before us are from American hands, and attempt to give both sides of the questions involved. Several, from English pens, are interested only in disclosing what their authors saw. The rest are more or less partial to Great Britain, reflecting the attitude to be expected when war excites a nation.
The pamphlet from M. Edmond Desmolins, author of "Anglo-Saxon Superiority," entitled "Boers or English: Who Are in the Right?" is an argument against the rights of a weaker people to national existence, with such qualification as can be given that unpleasant theme by statements such as this: "These great nations must understand that their preeminence is based solely on the fact that they are, for the time being, the most worthy to exercise it," a complete confusion, it will be noted, of might and right.
"The British Case Against the Boer Republics is a small document prepared by the Imperial South African Association, chief agent of the Johannesburg mine owners in their campaign of misrepresentation, which was sent by the Bureau of Education to the teachers of the United States during the past It is a brief, giving page and volume of British official documents, intended to supply the British sympathizer with justification for the exter
BOERS OR ENGLISH: WHO ARE IN THE RIGHT? BY Edmond Desmolins. New York: Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons.
THE BRITISH CASE AGAINST THE BOER REPUBLICS. Anonymous. London: The Imperial South African Association.
ON THE EVE OF THE WAR. By Evelyn Cecil, M.P. New York: Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons.
SOUTH AFRICA, PAST AND PRESENT. By Violet R. Markham. New York: Imported by Charles Scribner's Sons. IN SOUTH AFRICA WITH BULLER. By George Clarke Musgrave. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co.
THE RELIEF OF LADYSMITH. By John Black Atkins. Boston: L. C. Page & Co.
Beseiged by THE BOERS. By E. Oliver Ashe, M.D. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co.
LONDON TO LADYSMITH VIA PRETORIA. By Winston Spencer Churchill. New York: Longmans, Green, & Co. IAN HAMILTON'S MARCH. By Winston Spencer Churchill. New York: Longmans, Green, & Co.
THE BOERS IN WAR. By Howard C. Hillegas. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
WITH BOTH ARMIES IN SOUTH AFRICA. By Richard Harding Davis. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
LESSONS OF THE WAR. By Spencer Wilkinson. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co.
THE GREAT BOER WAR. By A. Conan Doyle. New York: McClure, Phillips & Co.
THE WAR OFFICE, THE ARMY, AND THE EMPIRE. By H. O. Arnold-Forster, M.P. New York: Cassell & Co., Ltd. THE RISE AND FALL OF KRUGERISM. By John Scoble and H. R. Abercrombie. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co. THE SETTLEMENT AFTER THE WAR IN SOUTH AFRICA. By M. J. Farrelly, LL.D. New York: The Macmillan Co.
mination of the South African Republics. It is purely ex parte, and makes no other pretension.
Mr. Evelyn Cecil is a nephew of the Marquis of Salisbury and a member of parliament. arrived at Cape Town less than a month before the war broke out, and stayed in South Africa for three months and a half afterward. The opening words of his book, "If England fights she will create for herself a sullen dependency among the Dutch in South Africa," spoken to the author upon his arrival at the Cape, seem to be most nearly prophetic of any of the statements in the volume, which deals with the British side entirely. Some remarks on the administration of Rhodesia are worth reading, as evidence that the Transvaal was brought to bay for doing the very things which the Chartered Company did in a much more extortionate degree.
Just such another book as the foregoing, making necessary allowances for sex and education, is Miss Violet R. Markham's "South Africa, Past and Present." The larger part of the work, however, is a rewriting of the history of the land, with a chapter on "Industrial Johannesburg" supplied by the author's brother, Mr. Arthur Markham. The portly volume requires no extended notice at this time, containing as it does the usual record of mismanagement and race hatred, fostered by mutual misunderstandings and thoughtless oppor
One of the best of the books resulting from the war in Cuba was written by Captain George Clarke Musgrave, whose new volume, "In South Africa with Buller," contains a vivid account of that doughty warrior's advances and retreats. It is a violently partisan work, addressed to Americans in a particular sense, even to the point of quoting Mr. John Hays Hammond, a paid attorney of the Johannesburg mine owners, as an authority, along with a number of other Americans with foreign names who wish to see England reduce taxation. The book makes no pretension to literary graces, but its narrative of the fighting can hardly fail to interest.
Another former Cuban correspondent is Mr. John Black Atkins, whose letters to the Manchester "Guardian" have been collected, so far as they are pertinent, into a volume entitled "The Relief of Ladysmith." The story of the repeated attempts to bear succor to the people of that sadly beleagured and gallant little town is told in Mr. Atkins's best style, with great good humor, though with a full setting forth of the difficulties met and surmounted.
Dr. E. Oliver Ashe was a surgeon in the hospital at Kimberly during the siege, and his "Besieged by the Boers" is a picturesque account of events in that monopolistic town for several months, mottled with paragraphs that reflect the deadly dullness of the long isolation. Dr. Ashe's vivid pages tell a story worth telling, and tell it well.
The two books of Mr. Winston Spencer Churchill, "London to Ladysmith via Pretoria" and "Ian
Hamilton's March," form a continuous narrative of the author's numerous adventures and narrow escapes, from the beginning of the war to the capture of Pretoria. The inclusion of the diary of Lieutenant Frankland, an officer in the unfortunate Dublin Fusileers, carries on the tale of the prisoners at Pretoria from the time of Mr. Churchill's escape until his return to that city with the British column. It is not necessary here to praise Mr. Churchill's methods of presenting his facts. He is writing in the field and his letters appear in a London paper before they are printed in book form; but it is doubtful if any revision or care could give them the air of reality they now convey.
Mr. Howard C. Hillegas is an American who has been attached to the Republican side in the South African struggle. His account of "The Boers in War" pays a high tribute to the men who compose the burgher armies, and the manner in which they go about their battles. He bears witness to the smallness of the force which they have been able to put in the field, such forces never exceeding thirty thousand men at any time, and his description of what might be called the "elective system of fighting makes it still more surprising that their successes should have been what they are. Though his sympathies are evidently with the Dutch, Mr. Hillegas is wholly free from rancor, as was evidenced in his former book.
The psychological study of a man changing his mind adds to the value of Mr. Richard Harding Davis's "With Both Armies in South Africa." It is evident from the narrative that Mr. Davis had been so thoroughly persuaded the burghers were as black as the British had painted them that his discovery of the exaggeration caused a total overthrow of all his pre-judgments, leaving him as violently partisan as before, though on the other side. His testimony that the Englishman is a bad loser can be matched by an abundance of examples collected from exclusively British sources since the outbreak of hostilities, and the hearty dislike his frankness has caused in Great Britain is some witness to the accuracy of his comment.
Mr. Spencer Wilkinson's volume of "Lessons of the War" is merely a reprint of his weekly reviews in "The London Letter," and carry the story of the war no further than the relief of Ladysmith. His statement that no power will intervene unless it is prepared for war still awaits complete demonstration. Another similar volume will contain more and riper decisions.
Even the preface by the Earl of Rosebery does not save Mr. H. O. Arnold-Forster's "The War Office, the Army, and the Empire" from being too sanguine a work in its belief that strictures on the blunders of those who control the machinery of the British army will result in reform. Similar rumors have been heard in the United States ever since Grant found himself powerless to redeem his specific pledges to Sherman in behalf of the War