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The Army.

H. OF R.)

(APRIL 13, 1830 partisans used that argument, wbo did not themselves be.

TUESDAY, APRIL 13, 1830. lieve there was much truth or weight in it! And, admit

THE ARMY. that the power of making surveys was ever so much abused by a late administration, because a good thing has been The House resumed the consideratiou of the resolution used for a bad purpose, does it cease to be good, if pro- reported from the Military Committee, requiring the Ser perly used?

cretary of War to report a new organization of the army I come now to notice the speech of a gentleman from so as to reduce the number of officers ; the question pend. Virginia, (Mr. ARCHER) who seemed so particularly mag. ing being on the motion of Mr. TAYLOR to commit the nanimous toward the State of New York. I was bappy resolution to a Committee of the Whole House. to hear him—the strain was so new, that it made a strong Mr. WILDE said, that, when he was intercepted by the impression upon me—the gentleman seems to have made expiration of the hour devoted to resolutions, the other the discovery that there can be something that is correct day, he had but a few more words to say. He had said, without the bounds of the State of Virginia ! But, before on that occasion, that the passage of this resolution would the gentleman praises New York too bighly, let him wait be an indication, on the part of that House, that they were and see how she will vote ou this question. If New York prepared to vote for a reduction of the army. One genis to vote down this bill because her petition for aid was ileinan bad remarked that this was a proposition merely, once rejected, what is she to expect in future! Will the to institute an inquiry. In this light he could not view it. time never come when New York will apply for a share The Secretary is required to submit a plan for the reduc

. of that very aid she is now asked to refuse And what tion of the number of officers; and should he report that will then be said to her by the power of the West on this no reduction could be made without detriment to the pubfloor 1 Sir, I hope New York will be magnanimous too lic service, would it not be said that this was not an answer magnanimous to cherish the remembrance of a disappoint- to the call made upon him by the House? The resolution mient, and the feelings of resentment it excited. The gentle either contemplates asking the Secretary whether any man ought to bave recollected that the policy of New York reduction can be made in the officers of the army,

without in making the application was directly in contradiction of all injury to the public service, and, if any, what I or it directs his theories as a politician. When Clinton asked this body him to propose a plan for this reduction at all events. In to grant aid to the State of New York, did he come here either of these cases, he would deem it proper to commit ignorant of the constitution and, if not, did he hold the the resolution to the Committee of the whole on the state of same views of it as that gentleman and his coadjutors ? No: the Union, that it might there be discussed, the principles be acknowledged this Government had the power and

the settled which it involves, and then the result of their deliright to grant the aid he solicited. The gentleman has berations might be submitted to the Secretary of War for used soft words I will not use the vulgar phrase, and say bis action ; or they might submit

to the department only he has been pouring soft soap down the backs of the New the inquiry in relation to the expediency of the measure York delegation ; but he can never reconcile ber conduct and pot call upon it for a distinct plan for re organizing with his principles. The gentleman told us that if the the army, without a proper investigation. It appeared General Government did not engage in these works, they him that the proposition, as it now stood, was one asking would be done by the States; but, according to bis argu. them to express an opinion without deliberation. Mr. ment, if this Government does not, the States will not. said he should offer an amendment to the resolution, if the We have heard new doctrines broached here. The gen- motion for its commitment did not prevail. tleman seems to have taken lessons in the school of a cer. tain judge in Israel, and to have adopted that maxim of was on the commitment of the resolution to the Committee

Mr. WICKLIFFE said, the question before the House exalted morality,"

all is fair in politics." The gentleman of the Whole on the state of the Union. The proposition is hot fur forming a coalition-he will coalesce with any in the resolution did not contemplate a reduction in the body; but it is for the most unprincipled purpose

, if that rank and file of the army, but only in its official corps. combination is to be directed against the policy of the tariff

, such reduction were proper

, he did not know why it could and of the internal improvements of the country. I speak not as well be discussed in the House, as in a Committee for myself alone-in relation to my own morality ; I can of the Whole. For bir own part, he was anxious tiene of course

, speak only for myself ; but I have not much con some plan should be submitted at the next session of Con fidence in the morality of those who are ready to join with gress

, by which the number of oficers in the army conheur of this

Government. If I do not forget, that same gentle- proportion of officers, he believed, in his conscience, to be man told us that if Virginia should ever alter

her law re-useless. There is not a Goverment on earth (said M. specting elections, he would pack up and remove into the W.] whose army is thus organized. A gentleman very heart and centre of Africa. But Virginia has changed makes the exception of that of Bolivar; but, not being Yer Lawn of elections , and the gentleman

has not removed nequainted with the fant, n, of course, cannot join in the to Africa. If our eyes and ears do not deceive us, be is exception. fi fere it. If he does, however

, he will not, of course, never consists of more than five thousand five hundred

According to reports laid internal improvements. They are all for building houses to the estimate of the members of the Military Committee stop at Liberia, because the people there are in favor

of men; and what proportion of them are officers. According and making roads, and engaging in every design that can there is a commissioned officer to every seven men, content improve their colony. And, what is worse for the

gentle seven and a hal. There are nearseven havdred officers man, he cannot

remain at home. This policy has go down to command have thousand meenear There are twelve regio there banery, tilinis reaching tide water. The best thing more one in the service, each regiment consisting of the element We hear tumi be , that it has driven the gentleman down ng companies,

and each compang from forty-ave to longe muet embark for Africa

, or somewhere else. Would it the war, the number of men to a company was formed on not be better for him to try to content himself at home, from eighty to a bundred. Unless some

, would be of canal diggers and road makers

brigadiers. The captains would be majors, and the lieute Virginia, with all thy faults, I love the still!

napts captains by brevet. He asked if gentlemen had er [Here the debate closed for tbis day.)

amined into the expeuses of our army. He meant the | army proper. He would ask if it was known what pro

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APRIL 13, 1830.]

The Army.

(H. OF R

portion of this expedditure bore to those required when the fitted to command an army, or a company, or even to perarmy consisted of ten thousand men. The differeuce is form the duties of an orderly sergeant. To be sure, some very small-three or four thousand dollars. For the last of them might be capable of these duties. What, it would two years, the pay and subsistence had averaged two mil- be asked, is the best course to make them qualified? Why, lion three bundred thousand dollars. But this was not educate them at West Point, if you choose, but throw all; the Military Academy at West Point bad become a part them back again into society, and let them take an equal of the army. It had admitted two hundred and sixty chance for proinotion with the rest of their fellow-citizens. cadets. It was true, they did not all remain to hang as a If they bave talents, no doubt they will be developed. If burdeo upon the army. After receiviog their education, they have merits, no doubt they will be rewarded. There those who could procure a livelihood by a profession at were many who had never received a military education, home, preferred that course ; the remainder hung upou who were equally well qualified with those who bad. the skirts of the army, at about twenty-four dollars per Was such an education fouud essential in the late war! Not month, without the semblance of service. Something (he at all, sir : on the contrary, it was found totally useless, said) ought to be done in relativu to the evils which grew and, indeed, involved the country in more calamities iban out of tbis institution.

any other cause. He asked, was Scott a man who bad reMr. DODDRIDGE inquired if this discussion was in ceived a military education i Not at all-he was a meorder,

cbanic. Was Morgan Not at all he was a wagoner; and Mr. VANCE said, be hoped the gentleman from New neither of them bad more than a common Englisli educaYork (Mr. TAYLOR] would withdraw bis motion to commit tiov. Let it also be remembered that Bonaparte took his the resolution, in order that the discussion might proceed officers from the ranks, for their valor and good behavior ; without interfering with the rules of the House.

and by that means created the finest army in Europe, Mr. TAYLOR said, that, as bis object was only to call He was told by the gentleman from New York, on his the attention of the House to the subject, and as this object right, (Mr. CAMBRELENG] that is war we find a difficulty had been accomplished, he would withdraw bis motion. iu getting officers, while privates were easily procured.

Mr. WICKLIFFE resumed. His reason for making the This only proved to him that the gentleman knew but very remarks which he had offered, was, that be conceived the little of the recruiting service : as it was notorious we bad motion to commit the resolution equivalent to a motion to ten applications, during the late war, for officers, where reject it. He then recapitulated the arguments which he we had one enlistment of a private soldier. There was, had used.' In relation to the Military Academy, the door and there always would be, a grenter pumber of applito military promotion was now closed to all who had vot cants for rapk, station, and command in the army, Than graduated at that institution. No man who educated his there were offices to give them. The demand, if he own son, however well qualified be might be, or bowever might so express himself, in the language of the day, the much he might desire to see him enrolled among the de- demand was greater than the means of supply. He said feuders of his country, could gaiu admission for him till that there would always be a sufficient number of capable provision was made for the sixty or a bundred brevets al- men in the intelligent conimunity to form the officers of a i ready banging upon the skirts of the Army. There was larger army than we should ever have occasion to raise ; no motive to excite the non-commissioned officers to a and that, too, without having occasion to seek them at laudable competition in the performance of their duties, or West Point, or at any other point. After some remarks

the aequirement of a knowledge of their profession; for on the requisites necessary to render an officer of value j even the rank of a subaltern was placed beyond their in the service of his country, he proceeded to com

reach, without the pale of their hopes. These men, during ment on the observation of the gentleman from Mas.

the late war; proved our most efficient officers, wherever eachusetts, [Mr. Davis) on the preceding day, that the 1 their deeds of valor earned their promotion.

frequency of changes in the army would tend to create in7 We have had much complaint (said Mr. W.) on the sub-difference in the officers as to their proficiency in military

ject of the frequent occurrence of desertion from the knowledge and science. It was said that they would rearauks of the army. And why is this, sir? It is because son with themselves, that, having the prospect of remainwhen a man attains the rank of an orderly sergeant, (one ing but a certain period in the service, they would grow of the most essential company officers,) bis military career negligent and careless in the performance of its duties, is ended. He has attained the utmost point at which he Now, 1 (said Mr. D.] think that totaliy the reverse of this cu ever bope to arrive; he has no further motive for ac- would be the case. I think that the adoption of such a tion, or stimulant to laudable ambition. Mr. W. said he measure as the one proposed, instead of discouraging them bnd loug been of opinion that the system pursued in rela- from the study of their profession, would, on the contrary, tion to this Military Academy was a most upjust and ruin- act as an additional stimulus to the acquirement of knowous ove, that no man, however meritorious and well qua- ledge in it. When an officer knows that, every five or ten I lified, should be admitted into the army, unless he can years, there will be a re-organization of the army, and produce a sheepskin, evidencing that he has graduated at that the most meritorious officers would be selected, and this institution i He thought no men could be more up- retained in commission, it stands to reason that every offjustly proscribed and disfranchised tban those whu were cer in the army, desirous of continuing in the service, tbus refused. The gentleman on my left (Mr. De Witt] would apply himself with unceasing diligence to the attaidsays, except editors of newspapers; but I say, not even ment of that knowledge, and the improvement of those them.

capacities, which alone qualify their possessor to be re. Mr. DANIEL observed, it appeared to him manifest that tained in his office. The argunent of the gentleman from there ought to be a new organization of the army. When New York must, therefore, fail

. The gentleman from the army was reduced, in 1821 or '22, the object of that New York (Mr. TAYLOR] had said that he had voted for law was to reduce and curtail its expenditures; but we see the reduction of the army, in 1821, and that for doing so that they have amounted to about the same since that pe- be bad been assailed by the newspapers, and called a rariod as before. This he thought a sufficient reason wby { dical. The vote on that occasion showed that the gentlesomething should be done. While they were urging the man thought it necessary that the army should be reduced, fiecessity of retrenchment in every departnıent of the Go- He complained of being abused by the newspapers in all Fernment, why not cominence with the army, and at least parts of the United States. Well, [said Mi. D.] cannot lop off its useless parts! But, [said Mr. D.] he did not be be now stand the shot from a paper gun! Has be not su:lieve that education could form a military character. Two ficient perve to bear pewspaper abuse! I cannot certainly thirds of those educated at West Point could never be thiuk it He voted for the diminution of the army forH. OF R.]

Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

(APRIL 13, 1830

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merly, and I hope that he will go with us now, and lend tucky on the one side, and North Carolina on the other his aid to the accomplishment of so desirable an object. and private surveying has been resorted to for ascertaining It would be the means of saving the country half a inil- the nearest and best way. And how many is it supposed lion of dollars annually; and be trusted that it would there are of the good people along these respective roade, pass the House. He wished, indeed, that it had taken who have any doubt that the way nearest to their dwella wider range. He wished that the resolution bad called ings is the very best way in all the world for this great na upon the Secretary to state the number of effective rank tional road! Áll but one route (and that one, too, perhaps) and file

, and of their officers; of captains of companies, must, in the end, be disappointed; but, until the matter of majors, of colonels, with a view to the establishment shall have been settled, hope will continue the flatterer of all. of the punber of each necessary for the public service. This multiform offer of a road to a people who have ne He wished, he repeated, that the resolution had been ver received any thing in this way, and who feel the want couched in these terms, and that the principle of the re of improved outlets to inarket more than any other part duction in 1821-22 should now be acted upon. He was of the Uniou, bas naturally produced uncommou excitepot one who wished to see the country swarming with offi- ment in that quarter. It is not difficult to know the va cers, in a time of place as well as in war.

riety and luxuriance of the growth of such a botbed. Mr. STORRS, of New York, moved to lay the resolution Many of my honest constituents have been led away by ou the table.

vain expectations, which they will never realize, and exMr. VANCE requested him to withdraw his motion for cited by means, some of which it is unnecessary to explain

. a moment.

Not only much speaking and writing bave been resorted to, Mr. STORRS declined acceding to the request. but, also, neighborhood, town, and county meetings bave The motion was, however, negatived without a division. been beld, to discuss and decide the constitutionality and

Mr. VANCE rose to adress the House, but the bour expediency of the very bill now under our consideration ; expired.

and with the view of instructing me, and requesting others BUFFALO AND NEW ORLEANS ROAD BILL.

to support it, as constitutional and expedient, not merely

for making such a road as is proposed in the bill, but a rail The House then went into Committee of the Whole, road, according to the rage of the times even a splendid Mr. HAYNES in the chair, and took up the Buffalo and national railroad ! New Orleans road bill. Mr. LEA rose, and said that he had hitherto refrained any who participated in those

meetings, vor am I disposed

It is not my purpose now to inquire into the motives of from engaging

in this discussion, partly on account of the to be outdone by any of them in matters of civility: exceeding reluctance and besitaney with which he would therefore, take occasion to perform a twofold duty-first, at any time ask to be heard in this ball. But he had been of rendering

my acknowledgments to all of them for the influenced, also, by a desire to offer an amendment to the attention which they have been pleased to pay to me du bill, at the time of presenting his views on the subject ge- ring my absence from home-aud, secondly, of tendering nerally. Since an early stage of the debate, this had not the thaoks of some of them to the hovorable chairman, and been in bis power, in consequence of the amendments and the other honorable gentlemen of the Committee on Rwads motions which had been pending; and he was aware that and Cavals, for this precious bill, which seems to be re: the same difficulty yet continued; but the manner and pro- garded by some as almost a providential

means of hastengress of the discussion had admonished him that he should ing the millennium itself! not longer refrain, and that he ought to use the contem- Having discharged thus much of my duty, I should weg, plated amendment

by way of objection and argument lect another part of it, were I not to make some further against the bill in its present form. He would thus be remarks concerning these same meetings ; for it so hap able to exbibit the comparative advantages of the plan of pened that, at some of them, a majority did not feel them the amendment for executing this and similar works, and selves quite so much flattered by the bill

as to give it their both modes would theu be before the committee, so that approbation. Such was the result, I understand, at those gentlemen could fairly consider wbether they would be meetings, where the subject was fully discussed before the willing to adopt either. If so, they would be prepared to people. They were a little shy of this proffered favor. vote against the motion now pending to strike out the The hook must be better baited before they can be caught enactiug clause of the bill; but, if otherwise, they would sus I have

forborde from censuring any one ; but I should not do tain that motion which goes to defeat the whole bill. He justice to my own feelings, considering the extraordinary thought it particularly proper, in order to test this mea-excitement wbich this matter has occasioned among my sure fairly, that both plans, and the whole

subject, should constituents

, if I were to refrain from awarding my feebles be fully developed before the committee , previously to commendation to such

of them as have opposed

this bill, es taking a vote on this question, which may be decisive. so really degrading, and yet so flattering to interested and

I bave thus (said Me. L.) indicated, in a few words, my superficial observers. With such temptations before them, object generally; and I hope the committee will now in- and in the midst of great clamor in favor of the bill

, they dulgendly allow me to present my viewe more at large. I have manifested that kind of moral courage and political The peculiarity of my situation may afford an apology not virtue,

on which the liberties we, eujoy must always marks a local direction. With but very humble preten- en opinion, must acknowledge the sterling patriotism of ouly for my speaking, but,

also, for giving some of my re-pend--and even those who may candidly differ from them i sions, I have desired to be equally unassuming—and I their course, in adhering to what they regarded as correct might not bave felt myself called on to depart, on this oc- principles. "Liberty to them is more valuable than gold casion

, from my habit of silent voting, if this bill had not and I am proud to bave the honor of representing such as addressed itself direetly to the homes, interests, and feel- freemen.

Another consideration adds to the peculiarity of my is, that this road shall run through my district somewhere; situation. I find myself the only member on this floor and (in the glorious uncertainty" of these projects) that from several hundred miles of distance along the content is taken to be almost any where and every where. The plated route of this road, who refuses to take this dose o to engineers, to be sure, travelled along the principal stage poison, as it has been prepared. Two of my

honorable : western route indicated in their report. But there are with two honorable gentlemen from Virginia, immediately many other roads running in the same general direction, to the east of me, are in favor of this bill, although they along thee xtensive valley of East Tennessee, between Ken" have arrived at that point by different roads, some of wbich te

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APRIL 13, 1830.)
Buffalo and New Orleans Road.

[H. or R. are new and untravelled before. For all of these gentle- It cannot be expected that all will agree in opinion men I feel a sincere friendship personally, and I have, also, either as to politics or religion; but there are, neverthebeen in the habit of harmonizing with them on political less, in each, both positive and comparative differences besabjects generally.

tween right and wrong, on which must depend the fate of Perhaps you may consider my situation rather embar- individuals avd of nations; and it should be the effort of rassing, in the midst of such a multiplicity of routes through every one, at all times, to attain the nearest practicable apny district--such a diversity of sentiment among my con- proximation to truth. But while important differences stituents-aud such cross-firing from my friends in this must exist, a spirit of toleration, and even conciliation, is hall. I confess that I derive no pleasure from this coufu- indispensably necessary to prevent ruinous distraction. şion-that I regret the conflict of opinion and of interest; Who can look to the vast and various interests by which but not so much from considerations personal to myself, different portions of this extensive country are influenced as from others of public conceru. Yet, it is to no purpose -- by which their representatives here are propelled in difto express unavailing regrets ; every one must act on bis ferent directions, without discovering the utter hopelessovo convictions and responsibilities ; and I assure the com ness of long managing the great concerns of this Union to mittee I have not the least doubt or difficulty as to my own advantage, or even continuing the partnership, without excourse. I will not vote for this bill. I cannot approve ercising the utmost forbearance, and executing a determieither of its principles or of its details. But I am not, there- nation not to push matters to extremity! When this Genfore, an enemy to internal improvements; on the contrary, eral Government moves on the border of the constitution, I would favor all of a proper kind, to be executed in a pro even then prudence gives a caution ; when it unscrupuper manner. A good road through my country would lously passes over a doubtful boundary, and occupies every doubtless be very convenient; and, certainly, I could bave inch of disputed ground, harmony and good feeling must po objections agaiust it in itself considered, but I have some yield to jealousies, animosities, and contentions; but whenobjections against obtaining it at the expense of my own ever it shall boldly, deliberately, and perseveringly march oath and the constitution-our liberties and pernianent further, and idvade the undisputed 'territory of others; welfare.

then the patural consequences must be, (as when the RubiSome honorable gentlemen have told us much of their cop was passed, and Rome was no longer free,) avareby obedience to the will of their constituenls. I, too, ac first, and despotism next. knowledge, to some extent, the force of such an obliga- This Federal Government has often sported wantonly on tion; but not quite so obsequiously, perhaps, as some of doubtful ground; occasionally, but inadvertently perhaps, my friends. I would not be understood as regardless of it bas trespassed further; but if the bill now under contheir good opinion. I would prize it highly at all times, sideration should ever become a law, in its present form, either in public or private life. Nor will I affect iudiffer- it would be idle, insulting, to pretend that we aim at any ence to my own destiny; and it will be my business to satisfy thing short of consolidation, and a complete conquest of my constituents of the correctness of my public conduet; the State authorities. but, whether I shall be able to do so or not, is to me a se- I consider this bill as the most direct and daring attempt condary consideration; for I hold that no inap is fit to be upon State jurisdiction and authority, that was ever before a representative here, who can hesitate as to a choice be a Congress of this Union. Is it noti What does it amount tween his own personal popularity and the preservation of to? Nothing less than a positive direction to the President the true principles of our Government. To them I look to take prompt and effectual measures to have a road made and adhere, as the best means of promoting the best inter- from the northern lakes to New Orleans, near the southern ests of my people, rather than to delusive expedients for gulf, without saying one word as to the manner in which relief or pitiful advantages, resulting in no permanent good, the jurisdiction or rights of States, or corporations, or indibut answering, for a time, the purposes of certain candividuals, are to be regarded or adjusted, in cases of difidates for popular favor.

culty. The strong arm of power must not be stayed, but I was sent here to act on my oath, to do good, not mis- must act promptly and effectually to accomplish the obchief-to execute, not violate, the great compact of this ject, no matter whose rights or what obstructions may Union.

interpose; for gentlemen have tauntingly told us, here and My constituents, of all classes, have long known that I elsewhere, that an act of Congress cannot be controlled, could not vote for any such bill as that now before us; and, unless the political omnipotency of the Supreme Court wbile some of them have been asking me to do so, they shall condescend to advise us of error. And is such a must have bad other motives than even a hope that I could power as this to be put into the hands of the President of comply with their request. They know my sentiments, ibis Union, at this early day? Is he to be authorized, com, and they expect me to maintain them. A majority of them manded, to go forward and make this road, without regard Hent me bere as a State right republican, as contradistin- to the rights of any body? The like of it never was beard guished from a national republican. They are jealous of of in any country that was not a doworight tyranny, or the assumed, overgrown, and increasing powers of this where there was even a decent respect for the rights of splendid Federal Government; and they are not willing to man. Some mode of ascertaining rights, and compensatJook to it as the “dispenser of every good and perfect ing for damages, would seem to be indispensable. I have gift under heaven." They see that it is becoming more no disposition to push scruples or apprehensions beyond and more the fashionable idol of the times, especially among due bounds, but this bill has no bounds as to principle--and those who desire to be initiated, or to continue priests at when or where are we to stop ? the altar, and they fear the danger that a new and ponder- At a proper time, it is my intention to offer an amendous machine will be fabricated as a substitute for the be- ment, with a view of saving the rights of the States, of neficent original; and that the idolatrous worshippers of corporations, and of individuals

, as far as practicable. At this political Juggernaut, in whole communities, are to be present, I can only urge it as an argument, to show that the crushed beneath its wheels. The thing has progressed some bill is not as it should be, and to point out a better mode distance already; the devotees are assembling; and new of executing this and all similar works. By contrasting the converts, even from those who were thought to be stead amendment with the bill, the imperfections of the latter fast in a better religion, are prostrating themselves before will appear more strikingly, perhaps, than by any other it. I yet belong to another faith ; and, instead of these im- means; while there will be exhibited a plan for conducting molations having any tendency to proselyte me, they ren- internal improvements, under the auspices of this Governder the scene appalling indeed, and establish nie in my mient, by which many and serious difficulties will be obviatown creed.

led, and which I think well worthy of the most deliberate VOL. VI.-98.

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consideration of every citizen of the States of this Union. received, and of the progress and condition of the work;

e are told that this Government will progress in the busi- and the President is required to withhold any of the pay dess of internal improvement, and some gentlemen seem mepts in case such State should apply any of the funds to very confident in this opinion. If its progress in that way any other purpose than the making of said road, or should should be very extensive, it must be matter of great im- fail to prosecute the work with reasonable expedition." portance that some plan should be adopted to attain the The committee will perceive that the three first secends in the lenst exceptionable manner. The amendment tions of the bill

, concerning the survey and location of the which I expect to offer, will be a test of the political prin- road, would not be affected by the amendment, which re: ciples of gentlemen on this floor. It is of a character too lates to the manner of execution and preservation, rather distinctive to be mistaken by any politician, and the people than to the plan or kind of the road; but some subsequent at large will understand the vital difference between it and parts of the bill would require alterations, which would the bill

, in their respective tendencies. I avow my objects occasion po difficulty, however, as they would be but datufrankly : first to put the bill right as far as possible ; and, ral consequences from adopting the amendment. second, if its friends will not adopt a better plan, to put I am very desirous that the amendment, and the whole them thoroughly in the wrong.

plap, of which it is a part, should be well considered and That I may give my views to the committee with great- understood, not only for the present occasion, but, also

, er facility and distinctness, and exbibit the proposed con for all future subjects of similar kiod. The committee trast in a manner more pointed and practical, I beg leave will, therefore, indulge me in giving a condensed and conto read the contemplated amendment:

nected view of the whole plan, that the various parts may "Strike out the fourth section, and insert the following: be more properly estimated.

“Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That the several An outline of the plan is simply this: Boards of Commissioners, to the extent of their respective 1. Let this Government survey and locate the road presurveys, shall report to the President a detailed plan of cisely where it may desire to have one made. the manner in which said road ought, in their opinion, 2. Let the commissioners, with the aid of suitable en to be constructed, without the application of stone or gineers, report to the President the survey and location ! gravel, except where indispensably necessary for its con- also, a detailed plan of the manner of making the road of venient use; and, also, a particular estimate of the ex- the kind indicated in the law, with a particular estimateof penses of completing said road, according to said plan; the cost; and, likewise, a uniform and moderate rate of and, also, a moderate and uniform rate of tolls, which they tolls-all of which to be subject to alterations and approv. may deem proper to be collected on said road; and the al by the President. several Boards of Commissioners sball have the aid of such 8. Instead of the President's going on to have the road of the Engineer Corps as the President may direct, in made by the direct authority and action of this GoFermo! brating their examinations, surveys, plans, estimates, and ment, let copies of all the reports, approved of by him, be! reports ; in all of which the President may direct such als sent to the Governors of the different states through terations as he may deem proper, until they receive his which the road is to pass, as the bases of a proposition from approbation.

this Government." “Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That copies of the 4. Let that proposition be, that this Government will reports approved of by the President, shall be transmitted furnish the necessary funds, in reasonable and regular into the Governors of the States respectively, through stalments, to any of those States, whenever it shall have which the surveys may have been made; and, for the pur passed a law, (with due regard to existing corporate righte) pose of aiding those Slates in making the road, there shall first, to make the road, us proposed, to the extent of the be paid, out of any money in the treasury not otherwise funds furnished ; second, to keep it in repair by the mode! appropriated, such sums as shall be equal to fifteen hun rate and uniform rate of tolla proposed, and not to be al. dred dollars a mile of said road, to be paid in the following tered without the assent of Congress ; third, to exempt! mander, and on the following conditions, viz. Whenever the mail

, and property, and troops, in actual service

, be any of those States shall have passed a law providing for longing to the United States, from all toll whatever ; but the construction of so much of the road as may be within that the President should so far exercise control over the the limits of that State, according to the survey and plan funds, as to withbold any of the subsequent instalments, approved of by the President, as far as the funds appro- if the former should not have been wholly and promptly priated by Congress will enable it to be done ; aud, also, applied to the work. providing for the repairs, preservation and improvement After much reflection on the subject, but with great deof said road, after it shall bave been made, so far as prac- ference to others, I submit to the committee, and to the ticable, from tolls at the rates approved of by the Presi- nation, if the plan proposed is not the most eligible which dent, as aforesaid, which tolls may be collected on any has been devised for accomplishing internal improvemente part of said road from the time at which it may be in suit- under the auspices of this General Government

. It chalable condition for convenient use, and which shall not be lenges scrutiny, and appeals to every motive of prudepot altered without the assent of Congress ; and, also, provid- and patriotism. It will attain

the ends more completelser ing that the mail, and property, and troope, in actual ser- with greater certainty—with

less danger. I doubt tot vice, belonging to the United States, may, at all times, that these positions will be maintained by further investiPass along said road free from any toll whatever ; but, hav- gation and reflection. ing due regard, in all of said provisions, for corporate Having given the substance of the plan, connected with rights derived from charters, as they exist at present, or the amendment, it becomes my duty now to contrast it as they may be modified in said law; and, also, designating with the bill, more particularly and practically; the person or persons to whom such money may be paid : A superficial observation of the amendment bas caused then, on the application of such person or persons, the some to object, that it amounts to nothing more than one of the fifteen hundred dollars a mile of so much of said out of the common funds. As the distinction is import road as may be within the limits of that State ; and, on simi- aut

, I beg leave to correct this mistake. I hold that this lar applications, equal sums, respectively, at the end of Government can do directly whatever it can authorize one and two years thereafter : Provided. That the person others to do ; that the constitution is the only

source of our or persons applying for the second and third payments

, powers; that we can neither give nor take any, except * shall, before receiving the same, submit to the President provided in that instrument; that the powers of the

respect a satisfactory report of the manner of disbursing the funde ive Governments, either delegated or retained, are per


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