« AnteriorContinuar »
H. OF R.)
Navigation and Imposts.—The Toriff.
(MAY 5, 1830.
he has uttered on this and another point, which I will also on Commerce, on Friday last, concerning navigation and notice.
imposts. He has said that a few mapufacturers send members here, Mr. WAYNE resumed his remarks on the subjeet, and and that the great body of the people are mere instru- addressed the House during the remainder of the hour alments in their hands. Can the gentleman be serious ? Does lotted to the discussion of reports, without concluding: he believe the people of New England, whom he thus stigmatizes, are reckless of their political rights and pri
THE TARIFF. vileges Sir, I have never seen a people who could more On motion of Mr. MALLARY, the House then again justly treat with scorn this contumely; they are as free and went into Committee of the Whole, Mr. Polk in the chair
, independent as the air that sweeps over their dative bills. on the state of the Union, and took up the bill in altera: Show me a capitalist who attempts to influence an election tion of the several tariff laws. by the power of wealth, and I will show you a proud spi Mr. CRAWFORD, of Pennsylvania, addressed the comrited people, that will brand him as a wretch, and biss him mittee near an hour in conclusion of the remarks which he from the community. We are uplike some other portions commenced yesterday. He remarked, in the commenceof the country we have no captains of tens, twenties, or ment of his speech, that it had been often and troly said, fifties, who lead men to the polls, and direct them how to that no human enjoyment was without an admixture of vote; the people scorn such degrading influence, and pay something which lessened the gratification it would other no such price to be in the employ of any one. He has wise yield. To pothing is this remark more applicable said the people are ignorant, acting under delusion, because [said Mr. C] than to our political condition. Living under they read little, and only on one side of the question. à Government of our own choiceman essential feature of Does he not kuow we have been forced into our present which is equal representation, and a voice by each free attitude, against our prejudices and prepossessions ? Does man (with such local qualifications as have been preserib: he not know that many of the most approved productions ed) in the making of those rules, by which all must be against the tariff have been written, and published, and governed, discontent has, nevertheless, at every period of read, among us? He nods assent. Does be not know that our history, since the adoption of the constitution, existed we are the most reading people in the United States, and in some section of the country. Its earliest ebullition was that all questions are canvassed and examined with the in my native State, where a scene was exhibited, that I greatest freedom ! If he believes we do not read both hope and trust may never again be found within ber limits. sides, and do not understand what belongs to this policy, On more than one occasion the northern and eastern porhe is greatly in error. It has always been a topic of ear. tions of the United States have murmured their dissatisfac. nest and careful consideration, and is supported from a set- tion audibly, nay, spoken it out plainly; and at still Jater tled conviction that the country would fall into decay, if it stages of our existence, our southern brethren have held should be subjected to such a policy as the gentleman the language of complaint boldly and fearlessly : have as aims at.
serted what they believed to be their rights with characteris: The gentleman has told us that there is one small fac- tio ardor and frankness, which I am so far from quarrel. tory in his district, and he verily believes, if there were ling with, that they strongly recommend to me the other another, it would turn him out of his seat. Sir, when he high qualities with which they are found in association. A spoke of the influence of capital in the North, I fear, to generous devotion to the interest of his own constituents, use a homely adage, he measured the corn of others in his and a zealous adherence to State, so far as compatible with owo bushel." If two factories will revolutionize his dis- United States duties, will always commend a legislator to trict, I will not do his people the injustice to say it is the me. I want neither for my friend, por the administrator influence of capital, but leave the world to decide whether of my country's affairs, either in an executive or legislative it will be that, or a practical argument, dispelling pre: capacity, a man who has no community of feeling or of injudice, and converting men from error by the power of terest with those among whom be bas grown from childtruth
hood, or in the midst of whom he has lived since his et Sir, much lias been said by the gentleman from South trance upon life. From him who never looks beyond his Carolina and his colleague (Mr. BLAIR] on other topics, owo door, or who is content if the sky be serene for him, which have not the remotest connexion with the measure although it lowers upon others; who can look on calmly before the House, I heard, and regretted to hear, argu. while the storm howls, and prostrates those near him, when ments, which appeared to me to touch, rather roughly, the an extended arm might shroud, or, if the attempt failed, it integrity of the Union; but it is not a question before us would at least console them, I desire to be far removed. whether we shall maintain or dissolve the Union. The While, therefore, I admire the warmth with which southconstitutional power of this Government to pass laws to ero gentlemen maintain the positions they assume, I cooprotect our industry, has been denied. Ou a former occa- scientiqusly believe they are mistaken in the views they sion I delivered my sentiments on this topic; and, being take of the subject, and have glanced at one or two passatisfied that the power is not only clearly given to the Go- sages of our history, to show that they are not singular as vernment, I shall not go into the question, for an argument relates either to the source whence they suppose their difwould necessarily be a repetition of what is now before the ficulties to spring, or (I say it with the bigbest respect for public. I shall, therefore, forbear any comment upon such all my opponents on this question) the error under which arguments, and conclude by thanking the committee, with they labor in making the allegation. great sincerity, for the very kind attention they have be And bere permit me to remark that I have beard it restowed through the whole of my remarks.
peatedly asked in this Hall
, by some of those who differ Mr. CRAWFORD of Pennsylvania, followed on the from me in opinion, “What I do we not understand our same side, and spoke about an hour, when he suspended own interest ?' And although it was not said, the ides his remarks.
was evidently intended to be conveyed, that we, of the middle and northern States, were not so well qualified to judge of southern interests. Perhaps it is true: 80 far as
concerns myself, I admit it. But, sir, have I any choice! WEDNESDAY, MAY 6, 1830.
Am not I, io my proper place, in my representative ca NAVIGATION AND IMPOSTS.
pacity, bouod to decide upon such questions as shall be,
or have been raised! Further, sir, am I not compelled, as The House resumed the consideration of the bill re- one of those charged with inflicting flagrant injustice, to ported by Mr. CAMBRELENG, from the Committee stand by my conduct, and show that it is arraigned with
4 MAY 5, 1830.]
(H. Or R. out reason! Having, therefore, a serious, and, perhaps it , sixty per centum advance on the invoice prices, proves might even be called, in reference to the opinions of others, that frauds have been practised. Do we not hear from of whom I have made a high estimate, a solemn duty to these very men themselves, of more than one invoice of perform, I may not, and, unless prevented by stronger than the same goods, and of cloths sold in Boston for five dolhuman powers, I will not neglect it, but must proceed to lars per yard, which were imported as not worth one dolstate the grounds of my preference for the original bill, lar! All the officers of the Government complain of the
modified as may be deemed best hereafter, but preserving constant infractions of the law. The frauds perpetrated ze its principle and purpose, and my objections to the amend- upon the revenue are enormous, depriving it of many a maent of the honorable gentleman from South Carolina, millions per annum; and consignees and others are fre de [Mr. McDUFFIE.)
quently made the ignorant and innocent instruments of It has been, and it must be conceded, that, if the lay these practices, by means of double invoices and papers. nel stands as it now does, it should be rigidly enforced. No Does not every man see that the evil must necessarily honorable gentleman on this floor will countenance its in- exist
, according to the present legal provisions ? The imfraction:
: whatever our statutory provisions may be, they ports of New York amount, nominally, to twenty-five mil. should be executed. It is disrespectful to the sovereign lions of dollars ; but really to forty or forty-five millions. power; unjust to the revenue; faithless to the manufac- Two appraisers are appointed to inspect these goods; can turer; an encouragement of fraud; and a dereliction of they do it? It is impossible they can examine the one hunduty, not to compel an observance of such regulations as dredth part of what they are enjoined to look at. I am the competent authority may from time to time enact. supposing the best possible intentions and qualifications on True of all laws, the remark is especially so of those which the part of the appraisers
, for I know nothing to justify pertain to commerce, particularly that portion of it which the expression of a different opinion; but it is morally belongs to importation, because they are most easily impossible they can go through what is required of them. evaded. Facilities for eluding vigilance grow
out of the These importations come like spring and autumn floods, extended nature of the business to be operated on ; out of sweeping all of duty and principle before them, and the facts, that it is transacted partly upon the ocean, and drowoing in their course honest industry; as the prospects partly upon the laud-in different countries, and requires of the farmer and the artisan are often overwhelmed by numerous agents. Do frauds exist? If the interrogatory the streams which rise above their banks, and desolate all is answered in the affirmative, this branch of the question within their range. At these seasons of influx, critical is settled.
examination is out of the question by two men. You It may be useful to ask here, by whom is the importing might as well attempt to stay the current of the North business of the United States dow conducted? Not ex-river, as to prevent the fraudulent introduction of goods, clusively, but chiefly by foreigners. In New York, which with your present barriers againt dishonesty. They are may be called, without impropriety, the port of the coun- so feeble, as to invite almost the efforts of avarice and try, there are but five importing merchants. By whom, cupping to a competition with the diligence and vigilance then, are goods introduced They are imported for account of our custom-house officers. Does not every days obof foreign houses, and received by foreign agents. A young servation prove that an inefficient agency or an imbecile man arrives in America, fixes his abode in a boarding and ill-executed system, is exactly what is most desired by house in New York; without any interest in our affairs; those who disapprove of it? That, to them, it is better without making any contribution to our expenses ; without than a partial abolition or modification of the system i By any feeling in common with us; and with no desire but to seeming to yield to wbat is not, and cnonot be enforced, get rid of as much of our import duty as possible. In a they violate it with impunity, and make such inroads upon short time, a cargo of goods is landed, and taken possession its wholesome but unfulfilled provisions, as to render it, in of by him as consignee; which are disposed of at auction, a great degree, useless. the money received for them, and carried off, without the Smuggling has been mentioned, and it is said our northpayment of the duties, which he has been unable to ern border neighbors understand this species of roguery, evade; for these rest in bond, until a second and some. It is probable there is ground for the complaint; nay, I do times a third cargo has been introduced; thus enabling not doubt that, to some extent, the evil exists ;' but those the foreigner, who has defrauded the revenue, to trade who are best qualified to judge, say it is not knowo or felt upon your own capital ; furnishing him the very means of in business, and they are those whose wits are sharpened injuring you, and agreeing to receive a deadly wound from by their interests, and who, in the opinion of the honorable an instrument that you place in the hands of your enemies. gentleman from South Carolina, (Mr. McDufflk] habituSir, I believe the credit system, in respect of duties, should ally, zealously, and devotedly worship in the temple of be abolished, or, at least, so modified, that the amount due mammon-the manufacturers themselves do not attrito Government shall not be carried out of the country, to bute their greatest degree of injury to this cause, but to purchase other goods for the further depression and final the evasions that the bill on your table proposes to destruction of home interests. But of that, more at a prevent To what extent soever smuggling exists, let it proper time.
be arrested; I will join heartily in any measure calculatThe honorable chairman of the Committee on Manu- ed to abolish the traffic, and prevent its recurrence; but factures [Mr. MALLARY) and the honorable gentleman the crying evil, the one that those intended to be benefited sively I think, that the laws for the collection of our duties of the country seems to cherish and nourish ; An evil that
revision. The very temptations held out by the demoralizes, while it does not enrich--that disgraces while existing system, lead men of weak principle to fall into it wounds.
One of the great interests of the country is differently 1823) is to be examined
and appraised: what becomes of injured injured by what I cannot but deem a most er the residue! They are warehoused, carried off to Phila- roneous construction of the
laws by the officers of the delphia, Baltimore, and other towns, or distributed through Government And here I mean no reflection
upon any various shops in New York, and cannot be traced. Hasa officer, and, least of all of them, could I idtend ang upon
any authority to enter a warehouse or store, in him, who was lately, or on the geutleman who now is, ** search of these articles ? None. He may enforce the pe- charged with the execution of the lawe under consideranalty of the law; but that is bis only remedy. The very fact that has been stated, of merchants or consignees re- which I dissent, on the iaws; and that Mr. Ingham, not feeling at
* I have been informed that Mr. Rush put the construction from infusing to receive twenty-five, thirty, and, in one instance, I liberty to dopart from, has acted upon it.
H. OF R.)
[MAY 5, 1830.
tion. They have, severally, I doubt not, discharged their Believing that all will coincide in the wish to execute er public duties faithfully and conscientiously. All I design isting laws, and that enough has been done to call for the to say is, that either they have been, or I am in error; and proposed legislative interference, I will endeavor to lay it is no disparagement of either of us, to suppose a mis- before the committee some of my reasons for thinking that take. Iron, sir, is manufactured to a great amount in the amendment submitted should not be adopted. various parts of the United States, but in no part of the I regard the simple question at issue to be, whether we country is it now made to the same extent (an extent des shall employ and sustain our own countrymen, or look to tined, in future times, to be almost without limit) as in foreigners for a supply of our wants. Whether we shall Pennsylvania. It is there, and I do not doubt elsewhere cherish those of our own blood and lineage, or foster othere, but there I know it is, emelted by men of as exalted cha' who are alien from our family, careless of our happiness, and racters and principles, as any other class bearing the name averse from our interests, and who will, probably, serpentof American—whose reputations and deserts I would wil. like, when warmed in our bosom, pour the deadly poison lingly compare with those of an equal number of gentle into our veins. men who hear me, for integrity, for patriotism, for intel One of the most useful maxims that any statesman can lectual endowments, for all the qualities that adorn and lay down before his government, is that one which admoelevate our nature, and await the result of the comparison nishes him not lightly to disturb any settled course of pocheerfully and fearlessly, for they have no superiors. licy, not to turn aside legislation from its accustomed chanThese respectable but aspersed manufacturers struggled pels, without some overruling necessity; and, when great long, and tottered under the embarrassments and difficul- interests have been engrafted on the measures of the Goties of their business many of them were obliged to vernment, to adhere steadily to them, until time and expestop the few that lived out the darkness and gloom that rience sball bring their results to prove what true wisdom preceded it, were encouraged by the light that shone upon requires of us. This maxim, acted out, will negative the their path in 1824—it revived the drvoping, and raised amendment; and acted out I solemnly believe it eap be, the despondent-old establishments were resuscitated, with the fullest and most sincere regard to the interests of new ones commenced—but it was not till the brightness those opposed to the protection system, for I do not deof 1828 covered the land, that they moved cheerily on, spair of satisfying even some of them that the injuries they and what was hope became reality, in the successful pro- charge us with inflicting on them are not wrongs, but Becution of a most valuable branch of domestic produc- misfortunes growing out of causes beyond their and our tion, until a blight seized upon the crop when it was ready control. For a series of years, but particularly since 1816, for the sickle, and the labors of the husbandman were the policy of the country has been regarded as fixed; act about to be suitably rewarded, by a return for all his toils after act has proclaimed to the world, and to those imme. and anxieties. By the first section of the act of May 19, diately under our Government, and subject to its regula1828, it is enacted that a duty shall be imposed on bar tions and restrictions, that we would encourage the growth and bolt iron, made wholly or in part by rolling," of thir- of what our various climates would yield, and the making ty-seven dollars perton; provided that “all iron in elabs, of what the industry and skill, the ingenuity and enterblooms, loops, or other forms, less finished than iron in prise of our fellow.citizens could furnish. To them a bar's or bolts, excepting, pig or cast iron, shall be rated cheering voice has been extended, that gently whispered as rolled iron in bars or bolts, and pay a duty accordingly.” the persuasive language of our early measuree, which has of this law, one would have supposed that there could been gradually increasing its volume since, until
, in our have been but one construction; the cupidity of foreigners, late, and, as I think, happier day, we bave spoken in a however, discovered that, by the first section of the law tone so loud and strong, as to reach every settlement and of the 22d May, 1824, manufactures of iron and steel, not hamlet, and to invite all whose means, whose babits, whose specifically enumerated, are subject to a duty of twenty pursuits and interests might be thereby bettered, to emfive per centum ad valorem. But how, it will be naturally bark upon the voyage, which it was calculated would re asked, could the law of 1828 be avoided, by a pretended turn the adventure risked, many fold increased. They compliance with the act of 1824! I could scarcely have have listened to the invitation, and have not been deceived; believed it, sir, but it is stated upon authority that cannot all that was predicted of the golden harvest, has been realbe questioned, that bar iron, through which a few holes ized. Millions of money, and millions of human beings, were perforated, as is done in the case of wagon tire, or hang upon the hitherto unbroken faith of the Governthe plates used on railroads, costing nothing, and having ment, pledged by the various laws' alluded to. The entire no just claim to be considered as a manufacture, bas, ne country, north and east, and a portion of that west of vertheless, been 80 imported and entered, and been so this spot, depend, for all of competerce and comfort that recognised by the proper department. What is the ef- belong to them, on the preservation of the present system. fect of this Instead of paying a duty of thirty-seven And here let me request honorable gentlemen to disabuse dollars per ton, under the law of 1828, the iron is intro their minds of the idea that manufacturers are the lords of duced as a manufacture, under the provision of 1824, and, the land, the aristocrats of the country, wbo, rioting in costing less abroad than twenty-eight dollars per ton, pays prosperity, refuse to relieve the poverty and distress they a duty of twenty five per centum ad valorem, or some create but do not feel-whose thirst for wealth even the thing short of seven dollars per ton. Is not this virtually sufferings of their fellow citizens cannot allay, and who, repealing the act of 1828? What is a manufacture! It it would have accorded well with the opinions of some genis something made by art; an article fashioned, as the tlemen to bave said, feasted like vultures upon their prey, word imports, by the hand of man, and to which the chief with a voracity of appetite that refused to be satiated value is given by the labor bestowed upon it. Will any who live upon groans and misery, and smile while the gentleman who hears me, contend that striking a few writhings of agony, and the distortion of despair, are turbholes through a crude bar of iron makes it a manufac- ed imploringly to them. They are (excepting a few men ture, within the meaning and intention of the law of 1828 1 of wealth, not so numerous, I presume, as those in the Sir, it is a perforation of the law itself, so to construe it- same circumstances amoug their more fortunate brethren amounting to a setting aside of legal enactments, in my of the South) gentlemen of small moneyed capital, but judgment, instead of an enforcing of them. Although, possessing an abundant one of skill and industry, and enperhaps, not strictly regular, at this stage of the bill
, i terprise and character, who, so far from having found the could not say less on this particular subject than I have mines of Potosi in their manufactories, require to be op done. In due season an amendment will be offered, that, bold by the fostering hand of government, without which I trust, will correct the evil.
they must sink. They, I say it with great respect, and
May 5, 1830.]
[H OF R. without disparagement, are equal in all regards to their | to abandon it
, and give my attention to some one more Eestli southern friends who pursue different occupations. They profitable, but you interfered, and lured me to my ruin.
acknowledge no superiors, nor do they arrogate to them. You not only counselled me to persevere, but, by your
prietors to exercise any undue influence in elections ; cer- be justly complained of, the increase has been too trifling *** tain it is, they have never controlled them, for, with few to be felt, and the price of cotton was high and satisfac
exceptions, they have always been in the minority. No, tory, I believe, after at least two of these laws were passsir ; without intending the slightest disrespect to any one, ed, as I shall presently show. I must be permitted to say, that, however inferior we may
The iron business is next in order, and is as important be in capacity to serve the country, we will yield to none as any occupation in our country, diffusing itself rapidly; bet in purity of intention, and directness of purpose. We and, if the present system is adhered to, calculated to be
mean to advance the interest of this people, and will try as extensively useful as any pursuit that can engage the - to effect it. I will here further remark (for this part of attention of our fellow.citizens. Something was absolutely **! the debate is disagreeable, and I should find no pleasure pecessary to be done in maintenance of this interest; the
in recurring to it, but am desirous of disposing of it as law of 1816 was of no benefit; the act of 1824, of some, quick as possible) that it is said no man could be elected comparatively, but still inadequate ; that of 1828, if enPresident of the United States who was believed to be op- forced according to its spirit and meaning, will probably posed to the protecting policy: without answering the pro- answer the end designed. That this species of manufacposition after the New England mide, as I might very ture was a losing concern before 1828, is certain ; now it justly do, by asking if a gentleman friendly to the policy affords a moderate remuneration ovly for the capital em
mentioned would receive the votes of the anti-tariff States, ployed, and labor bestowed; and, while it does so, no man * I will say that I know of do method of determining the is injured, for the price of iron remains as low as for
choice of this bigh functionary, so proper as that which merly, I meau American iron. How is this? The foreign shall base it upon his principles and opinions in reference article is in a great measure excluded, our own citizens to leading questions ; it is the only foundation upon which have the market, and by their competition keep down the any statesman can act with safety ; but I would not confine price, which will be still further reduced by the new and myself exclusively to this ground of preference. The rising factories. Our own product, which is better suited
man must be joined to the principle-principles and men to most purposes, is now lower than it bas been at some i are the true ground. Give me a man of the principles and periods heretofore, because, io addition to the competition, 3 opinions I approve, and I will sustain him, provided he be the price of labor, of provisions, of every thing that en
such a one as I can rely upon to carry them into action. ters into the manufacture, is reduced. Admit the foreign Upon what else shall we rest, to assure us that our selec- iron or equal, or nearly equal footing, and the grinding tion is judicious and wise ? Upon personal preference oppression of European Governments, wbich wrings from alone ? Never. When you meet with sentiments and the brow of industry the sweat of a bare subsistence, principles, and for their sake love the individual in whose which expresses from the heart of shivering poverty character they are embodied, confide in him-elevate bim almost its last drop of blood, will not be coufined to their -exalt him to the point whence they shall be drawn into owo miserable subjects, but be made to extend in its ope
exercise, like so many radii from the centre to the peri- ration, to reach indirectly to our firesides, and to bear # phery of the circle, giving strength, and vigor, and bealth, upon my friends and countrymeo. To this I will never
and life to the entire community-sustaining all through assent. whom they pass, even to the uttermost point of the circum The duty upon wool and woolled goods is next brought ference.
under review. This, too, is a great interest, effecting in What, I ask gentlemen, and I request them to reflect its ramifications almost every class of the community. The seriously upon it, what would be thought of any Govern- wool, which the farmer grows, sunk, between 1825 and ment that would lead its citizens to embark in any pro- 1828, from forty to fifty per cent. The depreciation was
ject--that would induce them to engage in a particulur owing to the low price of cloths. This circumstance also 1 course of business by its persuasions, by its acts, by its puts it out of the power of the manufacturer to give more
words, and then coldly abandon them to a fate which it had than a certain sum for the raw material. To give any value made inevitable, by withdrawing the pillar that upheld to the imposition of a duty, it became obviously necessary them i Migbt not they, or one of them, hold the following to furnish the farmer a market for his wool, which could language to a Government thus fitful and giddy : “ I was oply be done by taxing the importation of foreign cloth. engaged in a pursuit that would not sustain me: I was about They must go together, or neither is useful. If you say
H. or R.)
(May 5, 1830
to the foreigner, you shall not sell your articles in our be likely to be more tardy than might consist with the incountry, unless you pay for the privilege, you enable your terest either of individuals or of the society. In many own manufacturing citizens to become the purchasers of cases, they would not happen while a bare support could what your farmers can produce; and thus each brauch of be insured, by an adherence to ancient courses, though a industry flourishes by the aid it receives from, and affords resort to more profitable employment might be practicato, the other; nor are the rights of any infringed. An un-ble. To produce the desirable changes as early as may natural effort was made in 1826, 1827, by those whose be expedient, may, therefore, require the incitement and rivals we are, at the sacrifice of vast sums, to prostrate our patronage of Government. infant manufactories: in other instances, the sacrifices " The apprehension of failing in new attempts is, per were made to save themselves from impending ruin; for a haps, a more serious impediment. There are dispositions season, it might, therefore, appear that our home prices apt to be attracted by the mere novelty of an undertaking; were enhanced; but I firmly believe, if you could anuibi- but these are not always those best calculated to give it suc late every manufactory in the country, you would pay more cess. To this it is of importance that the confidence of for your consumption than you now do. The importer cautious, sagacious capitalists, both citizens and foreigowould be without competition, and tix bis own price. ers, should be excited. And to inspire this description of
Sir, the manufacturing districts furnish the best market persons with confidence, it is essential that they should the grain-growing States have. The flour of Pennsylva- be made to see, in auy project which is new, and fur that nia and Maryland, New York and Ohio, is sold in greater reason alone, if fur no other, precarious, the prospeet of quantity there than anywhere else. The corn of Mary, such a degree of countenance and support from Goverland and Virginia finds its way there; and I am informed, ment, as may be capable of overcoming the obstacles ir as a proof of it. that five hundred thousand bushels of it separableffrom the first experiments. were purchased in the little towu of Providence alone, in "The superiority antecedently enjoyed by nations, who ove, I believe, the last year. And in connexion with this, have pre-occupied and perfected a branch of industry, let me say, if you allow foreigu spirits, or, what is the same constitutes a more formidable obstacle than either of those thing, spirits made of foreign materials, to come into com which have been mentioned, to the introduction of the petition with our domestic distillation, you prostrate all same brauch into a country in which it did not before exist
. the midland farmers, who can now scarcely live.
To maintain between the recent establishments of our Sir, these, the stamina of your country, are pining and country, and the long matured establishment of another struggling, but they are a patient and enduring class of country, a competition upon equal terms, both as to quality men, who hope for better and brighter times, which will and price, is, in most cases, impracticable. The disparity never shine upon them if the amendment shall prevail
. in the ope, or in the other, or in both, must necessarily I beg the atteution of the committee to the sentiments de su considerable, as to forbid a successful rivalship, withand views of one of the many vigorous minds that gave out the extraurdinary aid and protection of Government. shape and form to our institutions. I refer to the reason " But the greatest obstacle of all, to the successful proing of the first Secretary of the Treasury, who, in a pro-secution of a new branch of industry in a country in which phetic spirit, and with a power of intellect ibat gives it was before uokuowo, consists, us far as the instances almost irresistible force to his opinions, in the year 1791, apply, in the bounties, premiums, and other aids, which met and refuted, if not every one, almost all of the argu are granted in a variety of cases by the nations in which ments now urged. I read from the report on manufac- the establishments to be imitated are previously introductures of the late General Hamilton, of the 5th December, ed. It is well known (and particular examples, in the 1791:
course of this report, will be cited) that certain nations u The remaining objections to a particular encourage- grant bounties ou the exportation of particular commodi. ment of mauufactures in the United States, now require ties, to enable their own workmen to undersell and sup to be examined.
plant all competitors, in the countries to which those " One of these turns on the proposition, that industry, commodities are sent. Hence the undertakers of a new if left to itself, will naturally find its way to the most use- manufacture have to contend, not only with the natural ful and profitable employment. Whence it is inferred disadvantage of a new undertaking, but with the gratuities that manufactures, without the aid of Government, will and remunerations which other Goveroments bestow. To grow up as soon and as fast as the natural state of things, be enabled to contend with success, it is evident that the and the interest of the community, may require.
interference and aid of their own Governments are indis* Against the solidity of this hypothesis, in the full lati- pensable. tude of the terms, very cogent reasons may be offered. “Combinations by those engaged in a particular brauch These have relation to the strong influence of babit, and of business, in one country, to frustrate ibe first efforts to the spirit of imitation, the fear of want of success in un introduce it into another, by temporary sacrifices, recomtried enteuprises, the intrinsic difficulties incident to the pepsed, perbaps, by extraordinary indemnifications of the first essays towards competition with those who have pre Government of such country, are believed to have existed, viously attained to perfection in the business to be atteinpt- and are not to be regarded as destitute of probability. The ed, the bounties, premiums, and other artificial encourage existence or assurance of aid from the Government of the ments, with wbich foreign nations second the exertions of country in which the business is to be introduced, may be their own citizens in the branches in which they are to be essential to fortify adventurers against the dread of such rivalled.
combinations, to defeat their effects, if formed, and to “ Experience teaches that men are often so much go- prevent their being formed, by demonstrating that they verned by what they are accustomed to see and practise, must, in the end, prove fruitless. that the simplest and most obvious improvements, in the Whatever room there may be for an expectation that most ordinary occupations, are adopted with hesitation, the industry of a people, under the direction of private reluctance, and by slow gradations. The spontaneous interest, will, upon equal terms, find out the most bene transition to new pursuits, in a community long habituated ficial employment for itself, there is none for a reliance to different opes, may be expected to be attended with that it will struggle against the force of unequul terms, proportionably greater difficulty. When former occupa- or will, of itsell, surmount all the adventitious barriers to tions ceased to yield a profit adequate to the subsistence a successful competition, which may have been erected, of their followers, or when there was an absolute deficien- either by the advantages naturally acquired from practice, cy of employment in them, owing to the superabundance previous possession of the ground, or by those which may, of hands, changes would ensue, but these changes would ) Lave sprung from position, regulations, and an artificial