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sight of the important fact that the muscles and organs of speech, like other members of the body, can be strengthened by use.

Syllables containing pure voice and pure aspirate-sounds may then be taken as the next step in the order of practice; and so on, slowly and calmly, to words; from words to clauses; from clauses to sentences-remembering always to hold firmly to the vowel-sounds, at least until the habit is completely acquired. The vowel-sounds are the anchor of hope to the stammerer. It is often remarked that stammerers have no trouble in singing what they wish, being perfectly understood, while they can not speak a word intelligibly. In singing they are obliged to prolong and make predominant the vocal or vowelsounds. The same practice should obtain in speaking, but not to so great an extent. The stammerer must learn to use these sounds in speech as readily as in song, and the battle is won.

We are fully aware that no written directions can take the place of the calm, strong, helpful will of a teacher. The magnetic presence of one who will not only inspire the patient to effort, but become a support and strength to the yielding courage, is of great importance. But let those who are thus afflicted consider this, that no one is without a resource; that, to throw away all excitement and sensitive nervousness on the subject, calmly accept the inevitable, and as calmly determine to master the difficulty, will surely result in a triumph over all obstacles.

The tendency of most persons in reading and writing is to let the voice drop before a climax is obtained, or the fury of passion has reached its height, which quite destroys the effect. To break up this habit the preceding exercises (see pages 88, 89, 90, 91) have been arranged on lines similar to the musical staff. By this means the eye assists and guides the voice in the continuous upward intensity which belongs to the vigor of passion; and then again, also, for the downward or falling intensity. These are exceedingly important exercises, and very invigorating and exciting.

The rapid circumflex of voice, or running of the scale, on a single word, as in the illustrations, must not be omitted; it will be impossible to produce the desired effect without it. If the word up, as illustrated on the chart, is first struck on the high pitch of voice upon which the preceding and following words are uttered, there is nothing gained but a severe strain of the vocal chords. But the rapid, upward circumflex of voice, or running of the scale, ending on the high pitch, will give the full expression and not injure the voice. This rule holds good in all intense emphatic words in which the climax is centered.

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CHAPTER XV.

Pitch - THE OROTUND VOICE — THE FALSETTO — THE CONVERSATIONAL

VOICE—THE GRAVE VOICE—THE TREMOLO—THE WHISPER—VARIOUS MOVEMENTS OF VOICE.

There is a diversity of opinion among authors in regard to what constitutes the orotund and the falsetto voices; and after the most elaborate descriptions students are no wiser, but are frequently more puzzled than before.

The name “orotund," or round tone, perhaps contains within itself the best definition that can be given. It properly means a prolonged utterance on a high pitch of voice, but not so high as to preclude the sound from a ringing fullness of tone. To make it the mouth must be wide open, the lips projected, the voice pitched perhaps on B, below the middle C, of the musical scale, and ranging in general modulation up to E for female voices; the male voice will be a fifth, or an octave, below. In producing this voice the organs are open, allowing a greater and more forcible column of air to pass out, causing a great breadth of vibration.

This is a general rule; but of course organic diversity must always be respected. Whatever the organism may be, producing either alto or treble, bass or tenor, each human voice has its relatively high, low, and medium tones. The natural pitch of each is the predominating tone used in speaking and reading; and the protracted exercises of speaking requires that there be no violation of this organic law. Still, in recitative exercises, one person may assume a variety of keys, and carry on quite a dialogue, sustaining each pitch of voice very satisfactorily.

The orotund is one of the most commanding and impressive movements of the voice. It fully displays the majesty of man as a being of soul, of thought, of imagination, and will. It is a quality of voice that every public speaker should cultivate, for it bears vital and magnetic forces on its wings. The patriotic and the loftier feelings

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