« AnteriorContinuar »
we have made our living. Now, children, which living, and of laying up something for a rainy is better, a living in the city, which I must earn for day. The chief item of profit from our farm, you all, or a living in the country, toward which however, is not down in my account-book, but is even Bobsey can do his share ?”
to be found in your sturdier forms and in Mousie's “A living in the country," was the prompt red cheeks. More than all, we believe that you chorus.
are better and healthier at heart than you were a “Well, children, Mamma and I agree with you,” year ago. I said. “And there was n't a good opportunity “Now for the New Year! Let us make the best for me to get ahead in the city, or to earn a large and most of it, and ask God to help us." salary. Here, by pulling all together, there is al- And so my simple history ends in glad content most a certainty of our earning more than a bare and hope.
THOSE CLEVER GREEKS.
By ARLO BATES.
IF you turn a book upside down and look at the yet, on looking at it, almost any one would call letters, every s will seein much smaller at the the former line the longer. bottom than at the top, although, when the book I might go on to give many more instances of is properly held, both halves appear the same the way in which the eye deceives the brain, but size to the eye. The long vertical lines in Figure I these examples will show what is meant by optical
illusion, or optical deception; it is when our eyes see things as different from what they really are. The upper part of the type that prints the letter s is
made smaller than the lower half to correct the fault of the eye, which always slightly exaggerates the former. When the letter is turned over, as in Figure 5, this same trick of the sight makes the difference seem greater than it really is; and, of course, were it of the same width all the way, it would still look uneven.
In greater matters, the false report of the eye is greater. If a tapering monument, like that on Bunker Hill or like the Obelisk in Central Park, were made with perfectly straight sides, it would
FIG. 4. look to us - for, you see, we really can not trust our own eyes -as if it were hollowed in a little; or, as we should say in more scientific language, its sides would appear concave. You can understand therefore that if an architect wished
his building to have a certain appearance, he FIG. 1.
might be forced to build it according to lines are really parallel and just the same distance apart that differed from those of his completed drawas those in Figure 2; yet in the one case they ing; for if it were built exactly as he wished it appear to spread apart at the center, and in the to appear, it would not, when finished, present other to come together. The line A B, in Figure that desired appearance. If he wished a pillar to 3, is of the same length as C D, in Figure 4; look straight, he inust not make it perfectly true,
or it would have the effect of being concave; and
slight that it can similarly, for other shapes and parts I might men
only be detected by tion; so that the problem of having buildings look
delicate measurements; but it as they should is a far more puzzling
added greatly to the beauty ofthe matter than one might at first suppose.
columnsand to their effectiveness. Those clever Greeks, who did so
Then the lines which were to many marvelous things in art, thought
look horizontal had to receive all this out, and made their architect
attention. If you look at a ure upon principles so subtle and so
long, perfectly level line, as the comprehensive that we have never been
edge of a roof, for instance, it able to improve on them since. Their
has the appearance of sagging senses were so well trained, and their
toward the middle. The Greek taste so perfect, that they would have
architect corrected this fault by everything exactly right. There was no
making his lines rise a little. “ near enough” in their art. They
The front of the Parthenon, at aimed at perfection, and nothing
Athens, is one hundred and one short of that satisfied them. They
feet three and a half inches long, 16. 3. found that their beautiful Doric col
and, in this, the rise from the umns, if made with straight sides, had the con
horizontal is about two and one cave effect of which I have spoken; and so, with
eighth inches. In other words, the most delicate art in the world, they made the
there is a curvature upward that pillar swell a little at the middle, and then it
makes it a little more than two appeared exactly right. A pillar instead of being, for
inches higher in the center than instance, of the shape it was to appear, as shown
at the ends, and the effect of this by the solid lines of Figure 6, would really be
swelling upward is to more like the form indicated by the dotted lines,
make the line appear - only that I have greatly exaggerated the differ
perfectly level. Inence, in order to make it plain.
deed, this same Parthenon,- the most beauThis swelling of the column at its middle was tiful building in the world, when delicately and
RUINS OF THE PARTHENON — WEST FRONT. called entasis. Of course it had to be calculated carefully measured was found to be everywhere made with the greatest nicety, and was actually so very | a little incorrect, so that it may appear right, which
is certainly what may be called an architectural paradox. The graceful columns, which seem to stand so straight, are made to lean inward a little, since, if they were perfectly true and plumb, they would have the effect of leaning outward. The pil. lars at the corners slant inward more than the others, and everywhere the corners are made to look square by being in truth a little broader angled, and lines are curved in order that they shall appear straight to the eye.
This is rather a hard subject to explain simply, but if I have succeeded in making it plain to you, it will give you an idea of the wonderful skill and art of the Greek builders. It is hardly possible to conceive anything more perfect and careful than their work; and the more closely one studies into their art, the more ready is he to wonder at the wisdom and skill of those clever Greeks.
THE PARTHENON AT ATHENS.
Tiptoe, dainty fine!
My little lass—I've caught her!
The darting birds have taught her!
Like this !- my bonnie daughter !
Why,—“ now she is fast, and I hold her!
Her dimpled arm and her cheek so fair;
To my loving heart I fold her!