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pilgrim loves, that have fulfilled the his fame. It was founded in 1780, penance of their youthful fault, rest on a surplus of 900,000l. of the at the happy shrine, and meet suc annual income, above the annual exceeding pleasures doubly relished penditure, which he proposed should by needful memory of disasters be raised to a million sterling by past!
taxes imposed for that purpose. Mad. Wondering – trembling- This sum was to be annually paid touched with pious awe-1 muse to commissioners, to be by them. am conscious—and adore! - But applied to the purchase of stock tonow I stood upon Creation's verge, wards discharging the debt of the a lonely hermit atom-living, yet country. With a view at once to unally'd to kindred life--lo! even lighten the burdens of the people, as a moment - husband---offspring and to render his favourite plan more --friends---with all the heaven-born effective, he proceeded to correct social charities, endear existence and many abuses which had crept inte invite me to a HOME!
the collection of the revenue, im
proving the excise laws, and extendThus, when fierce winds the midnight deeping their operation to the article of
deform, And shrieks on high the spirit of the storm;
Nor did he confine his ata The shivering Mariner, aghast with fear, tention to the details of interior reClings to the mast, and thinks, his doomsday gulation ; his enlightened and disSudden-the dark dread danger clears away, cerning mind perceived, that though Clouds blush with light, warm strikes the France for ages had been what is new-born day.
called the natural enemy of this In murmuring melody the waves subside, And breeding Halcyons nestle o'er the tide; country, the frequent wars in which Thro' Heaven's blue vast swift kindling glo- the two countries bad been involved And waking worlds adore the golden sun!
were more owing to false and misa
taken notions concerning the sources [Ereunt Omnes. of national prosperity, and an ill
founded jealousy on the part of France of the commercial riches of
England, than from any other cause. Memoirs of the Life of the late He availed himself, therefore, of an Right Hon. WILLIAM Pitt. interval of peace, to convince the
government of France of the mis(Continued from p. 8.) taken notions they had entertained
upon this subject, by shewing them · MR. PITT, soon after he had that every endeavour they had made taken the reins of government, to triumph by sea had diminished brought forward in the house of the riches and power which it was commons his plan for a reform of their object to increase by a contest, parliament; but it was rejected by and that both their commerce and the house. After settling the ac
naval force had been uniformly recounts of the American war, which duced by the very wars through were left in a state of great confu- which they had sought their extena sion, he submitted to the house of tion. Concord, therefore, being the commons a plan for discharging the mutual interest of both parties, Mr. national debt, 'which he afterwards Pitt conceived the noble design of amended and improved, and which changing the contentious policy will doubtless be considered by pose which had so long prevailed by terity as the noblest monument of establishing a system of commera
cial intercourse, which should re in the affairs of Europe, whichi ciprocally increase the value of pro- threatened the overthrow of all the ductive labour. Mr. Eden was ac- existing governments. The French cordingly sent to Paris to conclude revolusion produced a war between a treaty of commerce with France, this country and France. As to the in which he completely succeeded. mode of conduciing it, there is, pero The advantages of this treaty were haps, room for diversity of opinion. so obvious, that they were the best The circunstances were
new and possible panegyric upon the talents unprecedented, and therefore little or which had produced it.
no light could be derived from experiThough whatever related to the ence to guide him in his estimate of commercial prosperity of the coun-' the enemy's means, and consequently try at all times engaged a principal the extent of the force by which he share of Mr. Pitt's attention, he was ought to have been opposed. If we likewise careful to maintain the are to judge hy events, and lay aside dignity of the crown in our relations the fatal reverse's sustaiped by our with foreign states. By a spirited allies—if we are to take 'the history and timely interference in the affairs of the war as merely a contest beof Holland, in 1787, he prevented tween this country and France, that country from falling a prey to it may be considered as successful a French faction, which was then on the part of England; and, perlooking to the house of Bourbon for haps, an impartial man would be support. And in the following year, disposed to infer, not that Mr. Pitt by measures similarly decisive, Great was responsible for the misfortunes Britain, in conjunction with Prussia, and conduct of our allies, but that succeeded in arresting the ambitious if he had been able to dispose of the views of Catherine Il. which were force of the continent as he did dis. then directed against Sweden, and pose of that of this country, the inducing her to conclude a peace on success, which was only partial, equitable terms with the Ottoman would in that case have been gePorte.
neral. At the same time, he had The close of the year 1788 was an arduous task to perform in counclouded by a signal calamity which teracting the open and secret at. befel the nation in the person of the tempts of those, for too many such sovereign. It is unnecessary to ad- there were, who seditiously wished vert to the circumstances of an ill. to introduce into this country the ness which spread grief and dismay wild theories and ruinous pracover the country, more particularly tices of France. Some of the meathan merely to recall to the recollec- sures he adopted for this purpose tion of the reader the circumstances of were, perhaps, liable to considerable difficulty in which Mr. Pitt was then objections; but others of them were placed, and the manner in which he no doubt absolutely necessary. acquitted himself of the arduous The course of the war was marked duties attached to his station,
by several important events immeBut the most difficult period of diately affeciing the public credit of Mr. Pitt's administration was not the country, and one of which seemed yet arrived. Hitherto he had only for a time to throw the security of the to combat a political party, a dif. kingdom into immediate and immi. ficulty which every minister in His nent jeopardy; but they were met by country must infallibly expect to en- Mr. Piti with a calmness, firmness, Rounter, A crisis was approaching and sagacity, worthy of his character,
and of the prime minister of a great the twenty-sixth of February, pronation. In 1793, the spirit of com- bibiting the directors of the Bank mercial speculation and enterprise, from paying in specie till the sense which had for many years been so ra of parliament should be taken. The pidly increasing, did not find in the cir measure was bold and decisive; but culating medium at that time afloat, it met with the support of the moineans sufficient to answer the high- nied interest of the kingdom, whose ly augmented demands of trade. In confidence in Mr. Pitt had been alconsequence of the distress and alarm ways unbounded, and it saved the caused by this stagnation, and to country from all the confusion which enable the merchants to make good might have arisen from so serious a those engagements which were am state of things. ply secured by the value of their pro
But circumstances which only af. perty, but which in the state of pe- fected the credit of the country, cuniary negociation at that time however alarming and important they surpassed their convertible effects, might appear, were sunk in the terMr. Pitt proposed that government
ror and dismay which pervaded every should advance money on the secu class of society, when, on the thirrity of mercantile commodities, by teenth of April of that year, a mutiny issuing exchequer bills to be granted broke out on board the fleet at to the merchants, on the requisite Portsmouth, which on the twentysecurity for a limited time, and bear- second of May manifested itself at ing legal imerest, in consequence of the Nore, and which afterwards which the temporary embarassment communicated itself to several ships was removed, and manufactures and both of the North Sea and Cadiz trade again became tlourishing.
an event which The year 1797 was clouded by made the empire tremble on it base, two events, which threatened con and which deprived ordinary men of sequences still more alarming. From all power of retlection.
Mr. Pitt, tre great advances which the Bank for however, was not shaken even then. a considerable time had been in the The measures adopted by him, lord habit of makingio government-from Spencer, lord Grenville, and Me, theamount of the remittances in specie Dundas, manifested at once pruwhich were about this period sent dence, moderation, and vigour; and abroad, in the form of subsidies to the splendid victories which since foreign powers, from a dread of inva that eventful period have been gained sion, which had spread a. sort of mo by our teets are much more than mentary panic over the kingdom-- sufficient eternally to wipe off the and, perhaps, we may add, from a de slain which such irregular proceedtieiency in the circulating medium, ings left for a time on their chawhich had by no means been increased in proportion to the vast and rapid ex It was in the same year that Mr. tension of commerce-a run com Pitt adopted a new plan of finance, menced upon the country banks founded upon the principle of rais
, which soon reached the metropolis, ing a great part of the supplies with and created such a demand for cash in the year. With the view of preon the Bank of England, that their venting the increase of the pernia. stock, in all probability, would soon nent debt, from which the enemy have been exhausted had not go expected the downfall of our credit, verament immediately interposed, he proposed to treble the assessed and issued the order of council of taxes, which calculated to amount
to a tax of about ten per cent. upon was understood, however, that the income, which he afterwards subo king, who uniformly acts from stituted for this tax. This plan was moral principle, and agreeably to followed up by the redemption of the dictates of his conscience, conthe land-tax, by which the revenue ceived that he could not enter into gained an accession, of 400,0001. a the views of his minister consistently year; and the effect of the whole with his coronation oath. Mr. Pitt, financial system has been manifest on the other hand, attaching much in the high and undiminished state importance to the measure, thought of public credit, notwithstanding the fit to resign his office, on finding burthens of a war unprecedented that he could not carry it into exeboth in expence and duration. cution.
In the month of January 1799, This important change in the adMr. Pitt proposed a plan for the ministration of the country, which union of Ireland with Great Britain, now devolved on Mr. Addington, by placing the three kingdoms un took place in February 1801. Mr. der the same legislature, as they Pitt was understood to have recomwere already governed by the same mended Mr. Addington to his maprince. In developing the import- jesty as his successor, and he retired ance of this measure, he displayed, from office, giving the new admiperhaps, more than at any oilier' nistration a promise of hearty supUne his commanding eloquence, his port, as did these of his colleagues profound and extensive acquaintance who resigned along with bim. Lord with the political interests of the Grenville and his friends became country, and his accurate knowledge disgusted with the measures of their of the human heart and character. successors much sooner than Mr. He had many difficulties to encounter Piti, who continued to support them in carrying through this plan, arising after the conclusion of the peace from local prejudices, from contracte Amiens, during the peace, and till ed notions, from the violence of the commencement of the present party spirit, and from the interested war, when he joined his old Iriends, views of individuals ; but to a mind
now leagued with the like his difficulties never act as dis- former opposition, and by their couragements, but as stimulants to united efforts compelled. Mr. Adgreater exertions. He surmounted all dingion to resign his office in May, the obstacles which were opposed to 1804, him both in Ireland and this coun. The country being thought to be try, and at last successfully carried in such imminent danger, that unahis project into effect.
nimity founded upon a coalition of In the discussion on the union, partics could alone save it, it was Mr. Pitt and his supporters repeate ardently desired that an administraedly mentioned the satisfaction of the tion should be formed upon a broad catholics as more practicable under basis, embracing all the niost dis
be insurniountable. Lord Gren- appearance of going off with a reville refused to join any administra- gular fit. He was well enough after tion from which Mr. Fux was pe- this to go out in his carriage. In remptorily excluded. Mr. Pitt was about three weeks time, however, thus obliged to form an administra the left foot was laid up, attended tion composed of his own particu- with a good deal of intammation and Jar friends; and if, in consequence excessive pain. The latter he would of its confined organisation, he did never confess; and even when large not enjoy the benefit of the most drops were trickling down his face, splendid talents, this loss was, per- from torture, he said, smilinghaps, in some degree counterbalanced We who have got the gout, must by the advantage of one mind per- expeet 10 suffer something; but if vading and animating all the de this be all, I can bear it very well, partmentsof government, unshackled and much more.' by those differences of sentiment Before the attack came to its and opinion which rival powers so height, he went, one day, in a chair, frequently beget.
to the pump-room, to take a glass of In the prosecution of the war water. As he limped across the which was now entered into, Eng- floor, a good-natured quaker came land was, as before, eminently suc 1.p to hiin, and said 'l'hou seems't cessful in her individual efforts by rather lame, friend ; wilt thou persea. The glorious victory of , Tra- mit me to assist thee?' With a falgar almost annihilated the French good-natured smile, but peculiar and Spanish navies. But the coali- energy, Mr. Pitt, replied. No, tion on the continent, from which thank you, sir; I can stand alone so much had been expected, and the upon my legs yet.' formation of which was considered About the same time, he has a as reflecting so much honour on the few friends to dine with him, among political talents of Mr. Pitt, was to whom was a general officer who had the last degree unfortunate. The been wounded in the service. "G.surrender olihe Austrian army un neral,' said he, if I were lame from der general Mack at Ulm, and the the same cause that you are, I might defeat al Austerlitz, compelled the shoulder my crutch, and shew how emperor of Austria to sign the peace fields were won. But it is my fate dictated to him at Presburg. These only tò shew by what damnable disastrous events could not but make treachery they have been lost.a deep impression on the mind of Come', said he, I am the youngMr. Pitt, whose health about this est man in the company, and will be time began visibly to decline. For gayest man in the gout you ever its recovery he went to Bath, where met with yet.' This he amply veon his first arrival he drank the wa rified, for not one of the company ters very freely, twice a day, saying, ever recollected him so jocular or that he knew he must have a tit of facetious. the gout, in order to be well; that In a few days, however, his appehe came there two years before, and tite totally left him, for the first time, tried to bring it on then, but could under any circumstances of his life; not; and that it attacked him, very and he shewed evident marks of ex-, inconveniently, after his return to treme weakness and exhaustion. town, which he would now endea. This first alarmed his very anxious vour to avoid, by hastening the fit. friends, and, unknown to him, an The gout very soon appeared, first express was sent to sir Walter Farin hi s right foot, and then had every quhar, who went down to Bath