Imagens das páginas

May 11, 1830.)

The Tariff

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dollars. And if we grant, also, that the planting States Nothing in this debate bas surprised one more than the only consumed taxed articles, foreigo and domestic, to the loose and random assertions iu which gentlemen bave inamount of half their exports--ao extravagaut concession--- dulged on this subject of consumptiou of foreigu manufacthey will still pay, as cousumers, four million one hundred tures. A gentleman from Rbode Island (Mr. BURGES] who and sixty-two thousand five hundred dollars. All these deals extensively in figures of different kinds, has commusums added together, make an aggregate of fourteen mil- nicated a very important piece of statistical information in lion eight hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, regard to South Carolina. He informs us that this State, being twenty-five thousand more than forty per cent. upon which exports to the amount of eight millions of dollars, the exports of cotton, tobacco, and rice.

consumes, of foreiga productions of every kind, only to the But, sir, in conceding for the sake of argument, that amount of one million three hundred thousand! This the planting States consume only balf the amount of their very important and singular fact be infers from the cirexports in taxed articles, foreign and domestic, I have con- cuinstance that the imports of Charleston amount only to ceded what the facts of the case will not justify. On the that sum. contrary, they consume very nearly the whole amount of Can it be necessary to inform the member from Rhode what is left, after paying the contribution to the custom- Island of a fact 80 notorious, as that the principal part of house. The gentleman from Massachusetts [Mr. Davis] the foreigo merchandise consumed not only in South Ca. has stated that the manufacturing States consume as rolina, but in all the planting States, is imported through large an amount of foreign manufactures, in proportion to New York, and other cities north of Charleston ! I coutitheir numbers, as is consumed by the planting States. dently assert, sir, that, for clothing wlope, South Carolina If any thing in the shape of a tariff argument could astonish consumes in foreigu manufactures, and in northern manume, it would be this assertion. Can the gentleman possi: factures, equally enhanced by protecting duties, three bly be serious ? Can be gravely assert in this assembly, times the amount set down by the member from Rhode that the tariff States purchase, for their own consumption, Island, as her entire consumplion of foreigo merchandise. from the planting States, as large a proportion of foreign This statement of the gentleman, however, is not quite so manufactures as are consumed by the planting States extravagant as another which be made in illustration of themselves, when every man in this House must know that the miraculous influence of the protecting system. After the tariff States manufacture the very same description of ascribing all the improvements made in machinery in Euarticles, not only for their own consumption, but for the rope and America, for the last half century, to the propurpose of selling them in other States, and in foreign tecting system of the United States, which commenced in countries? We were told, yesterday, by a gentleman from 1816, setting all chronology at defianco, he made a stateNew York, (Mr. MARTINDALE] that the manufactures meut as to the effect of this improved machinery in cheapwhich have grown up under the protecting system, con- eping production, which bid equal defiance to all the known sisting of the very descriptions which the southern States powers and principles of mathematics. He gravely told import in exchange for their staples, amount anuually us that the American tariff system has reduced the price to the sum of one hundred and twenty millions of dol- of woollen manufactures one bundred per cent., and that lars. Now, sir

, if the manufacturing Stutes consume do of cotton manufactures two hundred per cent. Now, sir, mestic manufactures to the amount of one hundred and I can conceive of the possibility of reducing the price of twenty millions of dollars, and, in addition to all this, con- an article to nothing, but it would puzzle Šir Isaac Newsune their full proportion of the thirty-seven millions of top hinself

, with all the combined powers of algebra, dollars imported by the southern States, they must cer- Auxious, and the infinitesimal calculus, to follow the gentaiply be the most extravagant and voracious consumers tleman in his descent of one hundred per cent. less than on the face of the earth!

potbing! I must, therefore, leave him in the profound Gentlemen seem to tbiok it incredible that tbe southern depth to which he bas descended, with a single admoniStates should consume foreign manufactures to the amount iou. I recommend it to the gentleman never, in future, of thirty seven millions of dollars ? But is this more sur- to deal in the use of Arabian figures, but to confine himself prising than that the other States should consume domes- strictly and exclusively to figures of speech. Let bim tic manufactures of the same kiud to the amount of one bun- carefully abstain from all the combinations of the pipe dred and twenty millions of dollars! And it is to be re- digits, and revel without restraint amongst crocodiles, marked, that of the thirty-seven millions of dollars of toads, tadpoles, and the whole reptile tribe, which abound manufactures imported in exchange for southeru produce, in his imagination with the same teeming profusiou that fourteen million eight bundred thousand dollars is taken he seems to suppose they abound in the bayous and stag. by the Goveroment. This, of course, is not consumed by nant pools of Louisiana. the planting States, but by the public officers, contrac But to return from this digression to the question of the tors, and other persons, who receive in various forms the relative consumption of imported articles by the mavupublic disbursements. The remaining twenty-two mil- facturing and the planting States. How is it possible that lions of dollars is all that the Government permits the the manufacturing States, who allege, and allege truly, planters to receive for their exports of cotton, tobacco, that they have nothing wherewith to purchase foreigu aud rice. It is only necessary that I should prove that manufactures, even if they were freely admitted, can conthey consume this amount of imports, to prove that they sume as large a share of them, in proportion to their numare taxed, as consumers, in proportion to their exports. bers, as the planting States, who have nearly forty mil. Assuming the population of the planting States at four lions of productions to give in exchange for them if millions, black and white, twenty-two million two hundred those who have no means of purchasing the manufactures thousand dollars would about yield a dividend of five dol- of Europe, consume as large a proportion of them as those lars and a half to each persou, for every description of who actually pay for them, it is worth while to inquire elothing and other articles manufactured of wool, cotton, how this strange phenomenon is brought about. It must flax, hemp, and silks ; for iron and all its manufactures; be effected either by plunder, or by the exchanges of iufor salt, sugar, coffee, tea, and an infioite variety of small. terpal commerce. Let us examiue for a moineut the naer articles. The southern people must be poor indeed, if ture and extent of these exchanges. their consumption of the articles of foreigo merchandise, Wbat means bave the northern States to purchase the and of northern manufactures protected by the import du foreign manufactures which are imported in exchange ties, does not amount to five dollars and a half for each in- for southern exports ! They have positively nothin; but dividual. The annual clothing of a field slave amounts to their owo manufactures by which they can purchase foa larger sum.

reign manufactures from the southeru planters. The

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The Tariff

[May 11, 1830.

southern States consume a large amount of the woollen They allege, with great apparent sincerity, that a duty and cotton manufactures of the North ; but, even if they imposed upon any particular branch of productive induspay for them by giving in exchange foreign manufactures, try is no tax at all upon the producers, except so far as this does not relieve the people of the South from any they consume the productions of their own industry, and part of the burden imposed upon their foreign exchanges. that, consequently, the planting States have no cause to İf the southern States give fine British woollen and cotton complain of unequal taxation, because two-thirds of the manufactures in exchange for coarse northern manufactures federal revenue is levied upon the productions of their of the saine articles, is it not obvious that they pay, as con- own industry. Now, sir, if there be any truth in this doesumers, as large an amount of taxation upon these coarse trine. gentlemen cannot consistently oppose its application fabrics, as they would have been compelled to pay if they to themselves. I propose, then, to return the "poisoned had consumed the fine fabrics of Great Britain i The form chalice to their lips," by imposing an excise duty of only of the burden is changed, but its extent is not at all dimin- twenty per cent. on the various manufactures of the tariff ished: for it will hardly be denied that the price of north- States, which the gentleman from New York estimates to ero manufactures of cotton and wool is as mueb enhanced amount to one hundred and twenty-millions of dollars, and by the tariff as that of British manufactures of the same to repeal entirely the duties upon imports. This will yield materials.

a revenue of twenty-four millions of dollars, and will not But I grant that the southern States purchase various be half so oppressive, or half so unequal, as our present other articles from the northern States, such as pleasure system of taxation. For the last fourteen years, the whole carriages and cabinet furoiture, which are not, strictly federal revenue has been raised by an indirect tax of at speaking, enhanced in price by the protecting duties; and least forty per cent. levied upon less than seventy millions if there were paid for with foreign manufactures, it might of dollars of the productions of the country. It certainly be fairly contended, that, to this extent, the vortherh peo- cannot be unreasonable to ask that for the next fourteen ple sustained a portiou of the burdeu of the southern years, the burden, which gentlemen say is no burden at im posts. But gentlemen seem entirely to overlook, in all, should be shifted from that part of the Union which this aspect of the subject, what they not only urge, but feels it to be oppressive and ruinous, to that wbich regards exaggerate in others—the five millions worth of raw cot- it as utterly barmless. And I am curions to know what ton avoually sold by the cotton plapting to the manufac- objection gentlemen will urge against an indirect tax of turing States. In all conscience, this is an ample fand twenty per cent. upon the productions of porthern induswherewith to purchase all the articles of vorthern manu- try, which will not apply wiib double force to the existing facture, such as I have just mentioned, which the planting tax of forty per cent. upou the productions of southern States can require for their consuinption. When to all this industry. To all their complaints, I will reply, in their we add, that the southern States consume a considerable own words, “ make yourselves easy, gentlemen; this is no amount of tea, coffee, sugar, molasses, rum, and other East tax upon the manufacturers, it is a tax wbich falls excluand West India productions, which are imported by the sively upon the consumers of their productions." But, manufacturing States in exchange for their productions, it sir, is there any man in this House, that can believe for a may be very confidently stated that the planting States moment that the manufacturers would be deluded by the consume as large an amount of foreigo productions im- miserable fallacy, the insulting mockery, by which they ported in exchange for those of the manufacturing States, attempt to reconcile the South to their unjust and oppresand of northern manufactures, equally eubanced in price sive burdens? Would they believe that a tax laid upon by the tariff, as the manufacturing States cousume of the heir productions, is no tax at all upon them, as producers, foreigo manufactures imported in exchange for southern because the burden must ultimately fall on the consumers! produce.

No, sir; rest assured that, before they had felt its operaFrom this analysis of the internal trade of the United tiou twelve months, they would be most feelingly impressStates, it is apparent that the live stock purchased from ed with the truth, that a tax is still a tax, lay it where you the western States, amounting to about three millions of please, and disguise it as you may. dollars, is the only branch of that trade which tends to re And yet, sir, the excise which I propose would be, in lieve the planting States from any portion of the impost every respect, more equitable, and would be much more duties levied upon their foreign exchanges. Even, there equally distributed over the Union, than the impost dufore, if it were true that the whole burden of these duties ties now are. In the first place, it would be applied to : falls upon the consumers, the planting States would be larger amount of the productive industry of the Unior, taxed in proportion to their exports, with this incousider than thut upon which our present taxes are leried, and, able exception.

of course, a lower rate of duty only would be necessary. But, sir, in estimating the burden imposed by the tariff Twenty per cent. upon the productions of the tariff States upon the different parts of the Union. gentlemen entirely would yield as much revenue as forty per cent on the prooverlook its probibitory effect. The very lowest estimate ductious of the exporting States. In the second place, which can be made of the curtailment it has produced in regarding it as a tax, not on the manufacturers, bat on the the demand for American cotton io the markets of the consumers of their fabrics, it would be mucb more equally world, taking into view the increased demand in that of the diffused over the Union than the impost duties on foreign United States, is two hundred thousand bales, amounting manufactures. For it cannot be doubted that the planting to six millions of dollars. This will be three times as much States consume a larger amount of nurthern manufactures, as is required to counterbalance any dimivution in the bur- by at least five millions of dollars, than the manufacturing dens of the southern States, which can be supposed to States consume of foreign manufactures obtained in exresult from the circumstance of their not consuming taxed change for southern produce. This conclusively follows, articles to the full amount of their exports.

from the fact that the northern States have nothing but I have thus made out the burdens of the South to be as their mapufactures with which to pay the southern States, great as I represented them, without taking into the esti- pot only for the foreign manufactures they obtain from mate the inequality of the Government disbursements. them indirectly, but, also, for the raw cotton they purelinse

I will now endeavor to bring the doctrines of the tariff from them directly. gentlemen to a test, to which, as christian men, they can According to the principles laid down as applicable to not take exception. I require only that they shall prove the planting States by all the tariff gentlemen who have the sincerity of their belief in those doctrines, by adopt participated in this debate, the excise duty which I have ing the golden rule of " doing unto others as they would suggested would be no more oppressive to the manufactarthat others should do unto them."

ing States than it would be to the planting States! Yet

MAY 11, 1830.]

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every mao, I will not say of enlarged political intelligeuce, inct perception of their owo interest, and that they never but of the very bumblest pretension to common sense, would abandon it under any circumstances—both of which must perceive that an excise, accompanied by a repeal of assertions I fully believe-went on to say, that if the souththe impost duties, would spread desolation over the wbole ern States were unwilling to submit to what they believed region of the manufacturing States, wbile it would in- to be oppression and tyrandy, be was perfectly willing that crease the wealth and prosperity of the planting States, they should withdraw from the Union, and hoped they beyond all former example. Such, sir, are the monstrous would depart in peace. As the gentleman has thought discrepancies between the theories of gentlemen, intend proper, in a very cool

, calculating, and unimpassioned maned for others, and their practical results, when brought Der, to throw out a defiance which implies that the southhome to themselves.

ern States are insignificant and unimportant to the Union, And bere, sir, I beg leave to notice a very extraordi- I shall avail myself of the occasion to demonstrate how nary position, which has been assumed by one of the gen- much those States contribute not only to support the Gotlemen from Massachusetts, (Mr. GORHAM) and seriously verament, but to sustain the prosperity of the rest of the defended by another, [Mr. EVERETT.) The former gen- confederacy, by showing what they would be without the tleman asserted that the cotton, tobacco, and rice, ex. Union, and what the Union would be without them. This ported from the southern States, grown upon the southern view of the subject has the advantage of exhibiting plain, soil, and produced by southern capital and southern lahor, palpable, and intelligible results, and, if I am not egregiously are not the exclusive property of the southern States, but deceived, will furnish incontrovertible proof of the doc. that they equally belong to the other parts of the Union; trines I have attempted to sustaio, by general reasoniog. and the latter gentleman seized upon the grand discovery It will certainly demonstrate that the Uniou needs the southof bis colleague, as furnishing the only practicable solu- ern States, more than the southern States need the Union. tion of the otherwise inexplicable anomaly, that one-third What, then, would be the effect of dissolving the Union ! of the people of the United States own two-thirds of the And, in the first place, what would be its effect upon the exports, and pay two-thirds of the taxes of the country. southern States ?' It will not be denied that they would Sır, there is, perhaps, more truth in this iden of the gentle still possess at least as large an amount of exportable proman from Massachusetts, than they would be willing to ductions as they dow do. They would consequently export avow, though in a very different sense from that in which to foreign countries productions amounting to forty milthey intended it to be understood. Every southern planter lions of dollars; and as there would be no system of legismay truly say, “my owo is not my own," upon the same lative plunder or piracy to intercept the lawful returns of principle that our forefathers said, when they staked their industry and enterprise, they would import through their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred bonor" upon their own custom-bouses foreign merchandise to at least an the issue of the revolutionary struggle, “no man has a right equal amount. The whole amount of the revenue derived to that wbich another man has a right to take from him.” from the impost duties, on this merchandise, would be

But, sir, in any other sense, what can be more wildly long to them, instead of being unnaturally diverted by a extravagant, more supremely absurd, than this worse than Government which in this respect operates as a foreign agrarian idea of a communion of property? The rea- Government on them to enrich other parts of the conson upon which it is founded, is worth considering. It is federacy. alleged, that in as much as a part of the agricultural pro If we assume twenty per cent. as the average of the ductions of the South, as well as of the foreign manu fac duties wbich the southern States would inpose upon their tures received in exchange for them, is purebased and imports, it would yield them an annual revenue of eight consumed by the manufacturing States, they must be con- millions of dollars, being a larger revenue in proportion to sidered to that extent the productions of the manufac- their numbers, than the Government of the Union now turing States.

derives from the present excessive duties. While, thereNow, sir, it is strange that the gentleman did not per-fore, the planters of the South would be relieved from ceive that this doctrine, fairly carried out, would prove more than one-balf of their present burdens of taxation, ibat no part of the cotton, tobacco, and rice, made in the the southern States would have a most abundant revenue, southern States, is the production of southern industry. and, what would be of more importance than can be readily For if that portion which is purchased and consumed by realized, the whole of it would be disbursed within those the northern States, is for that reason to be regarded as States, creating, to that extent, a new demand for the pro the production of those States, the remaining and larger ductions of their industry, and diffusing prosperity through portion, which is purchased and consumed by foreign coun- ten thousand channels, amongst all classes of society. As tries, must be regarded as the production of foreign in. I have reasons for believing that this subject of Govern dustry. Thus it is, sir, that, by a sweeping theory, we are ment disbursements has not been sufficiently developed, ousted of our title to the productions of our own labor ; I will attempt some further illostrations of a more practimuch more completely than we are, even by the tariff it cal dature. The annual disbursement of eigbt millions of self

. Another consequence follows from this doctrine, dollars, where less than one million is now disbursed, which the gentleman would be very unwilling to admit would be equivalent to an addition of one hundred millions It results, as a correlative proposition, that the manufac- of dollars to the permanent capital of the country, that tures of the northern States, which are purchased and being the sum which would be required to yield an an. consumed by the southern States, are not the productions nual interest of seven millions of dollars. Can this posiof northern, but of southern industry.

tion be denied, or even doubted, by any rational mind at In a word, sir, as all commercial exchanges must be re- all familiar with such inquiries! Whatever amount is added ciprocal, this novel doctrine would as clearly prove that to the permanent revenue of any country or section of your property is mine, as that my property is yours ; and country, without any iperease of its burdens, must obit would thus introduce utter confusion into all our notions viously increase its wealth and prosperity, as much as they

would be increased by an addition to its permanent capital, I come now, sir, to a view of this very grave and in- sufficient to yield that additional revenue. But the case teresting subject, which I never approach without regret- we are considering is even stronger than this. The adting the necessity of doing it, and which I certainly should dition of seven millions of dollars would be made to the pot have brought before the committee, but for the course anoual revenue of the southern States, not only without pursued by a member from New York, (Mr. MARTINDALE.] any increase of its burdens, but with a reduction of them That gentleman, after stating that the protecting system more than one-ball

, thug adding as much to their wealth had been adopted by the tariff States from a clear and dis- and prosperity, by exemption from taxation, as by the

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increase of their public revenue. It is a moderate and safe ; manent annual disbursement of a million of dollars is suffiestimate, therefore, to say that the withdrawal of the cient of itself, to build up and sustain a city with a popu. southern States from the action of the Federal Government, lation of twenty thousand inhabitants. What, then, would and the consequent establishment of a system of free and be the effect of adding seven millions of dollars to the anunshackled coinmerce, would add two bundred millions of nual disbursements of the southern States, while their dollars to their wealth at once, and that the property and taxes should be reduced to one-half their present rate, and income of every man in the community would be propor- their commerce extended in all directions under the intionably enhanced in value.

fluence of that freedom wbich would equally ipcrease the And what, sir, would be the effect of this new order of demand for their staples abroad, and for imported maduthings upon the condition, the wealth, and the financial factures in the United States ! resources of the other States of the Union? What would Sir, it is utterly impossible that any southern city can become of their manufacturing establishments, now sustain-ever rise into consequence, while the constant draugbt ed by unjust and upconstitutional taxes and restrictions of Goveroment exactions, and the steady current of Goupon the productions of southern industry! They would verument disbursements, operate as discriminating duties exhibit one wide and almost unbroken scene of desolation in favor of the northern cities. It is under the influence and ruin. What, then, would become of your protecting of these causes, and not for the want of enterprise or indussystem? Do you believe, sir, that the western and north- try, that Charleston, the natural emporium of an extensive western States would consent to purchase manufactures foreigu commerce, bas sunk into comparative insignificance, from the northern States at an enhanced price, where they as a mere place of deposit for our staples of exportation, could find no good market for their live block; when they wbile the foreign merchandise obtained in exchange for could purchase manufactures from the southern States these staples is actually iinported by northero cities. It is twenty-five per cent. cheaper, and, at the same time, owing to these causes, that, although two-thirds of the fo obtain a market for their live stock, incomparably better, reign commerce of the country belong to the southem and four times more extensive, than that which they could States, their cities are insignificant, compared with those find in the northern States ! This would be to suppose of the northern States, and, while the former are going to them utterly blind or utterly indifferent to their interest. decay, almost universally, the latter are rapidly increasing The Dorthern manufactures would be driven from every in population and prosperity. And, sir, it is owing to these part of the United States where the imports of the causes, also, that the northern States, comparatively destisouthern States should be freely admitted. Consequently, tute of natural advantages, baving no staples of exportathe consumption of those imports would be increased, lion to support their commerce, exbibit all the indications in proportion to the diminished consumption of northern of a young, growing, and flourishing country; while the manufactures.

southern States, with natural advantages, such as never And what would be the financial resources of all the fall to the lot of any other country, and with an industry other States, if the southern States were separated from which never relaxes its efforts, are in a steady progress them? Unless they should resort to internal taxes, adding of deterioration, exhibiting all the indications of premanew burdens to their manufactures at the moment of their ture decrepitude and decay. A traveller, in passing utmost distress, they would have only a miserable foreigo through the southern States, will be struck with the commerce of twenty millions of dollars, from which to sup- wretched appearance of towns and villages almost in ply their public exchequer. Even if they imposed duties ruins--the melancholy memorials of departed prosperity; doubly as high as those of the southern States, they would whereas, in the northern States, he will be equally struck only derive from them a revenue of eight millions of dollars. with the animating appearance of towns and villages grosiu So that the northern States, with a population of eight mil- ing np, in the oldest States almost as rapidly as in a nesto lions would bave a revenge of only eight millions, paying ly settled couptry. Such, sir, is the power of misgovero forty per cent upon their imports, whereas the southern ment to destroy the bounties of Providence. No natural States, with a population of less than four millions, would advantages, do industry, no human exertion, however great have the same amount of revenue, paying only twenty per can stand the uoequal action of a Government which le cent upon their imports! A more striking contrast can vies a contribution of forty per cent upon the income of scarcely be conceived than this; and yet, sir, it is no pic- one part of the Uniou, to be appropriated, in various ture of the imagination, but a plain matter of fact reality, modes, to the enriching of another. involving no doubtful speculations in political economy, It is like the action of a burning and malignant sun, but challenging the assent of every man who is capable of which perpetually evaporates the moisture and fertility of reading the custom-house statements, and of making the the soil

, in a region devoted to the curse of heaven, to simplest arithmetical calculations. The separation of the pour them out in fructifying and refreshing showers on southern States from the Union, therefore, which the gen- more favored regions. Uoder the existing order of things, tleman from New York seems to regard of such small it is in vain that we attempt to disguise the fact that the consequence to the other States, would produce a revo- Union itself is nothing more nor less than a compact, re lution in the respective conditions of the two dissevered ducing the southern States to the very worst condition of parts of the confederacy, to which history can furnish no colonial bondage-that of mere tributary provinces. parallel. So far as relates to their wealth and prosperity, But, sir, the gentleman from Massachusetts bas inform it would be the heaviest curse that could be inflicted upon ed us that the establishment of a system of free trade would the manufacturing States, and the most signal blessing that make us tributary provinces to Great Britain ; and most of human wisdom could copfer upon the southern States. the gentlemen who have addressed the committee on the

Io less than ten years Charleston would be the second same side of the question, have expressed a similar opi city in the Union, and all the southern cities and towns pion. Now, sir

, with all my respect for those gentlemen, 1 would have a corresponding increase. The wealth and must say, ia sbeer justice to the subject, that this is a stale

, capital which is now concentrated in Boston, Providence, flat, and unprofitable nonsense,” destitute even of the Lowell, and the other great seats of manufacture in the shallowest plausibility. The lowest political demagogue North, would be transferred to Charleston, Savannah, on a county court bustings would not utter more miserable Augusta, Columbia, and the other great seats of com clang, with a view to arouse the prejudices of the most merce in the South. The growth of the city in which ignorant rabble, composed of the dependents of some We are now deliberating, is a striking proof of the won great manufactory. What, sirl are we to be gravely told derful effect of public disbursements. From what we that we pay a tribute to a nation with whom we carry ou have here witnessed, it may be safely inferred that & per commerce on terms of perfect equality, and from whom

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MAY 11, 1830.)

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We can obtain our supplies cheaper than we could ob- for two years, before the British ministry would have been tain them from any other market in the world? The displaced, or Bonaparte dethroned. A war between da. complaint of the manufacturers here is, that Great Bri- tions which are bound together by the strong bonds of tain sells us her manufactures to cheap, and this, it commercial interest, involves such distressing privations, seems, makes us tributaries; whereas, if we would pay for that the most ambitious rulers will not venture to cut those ty per ceut, more to the northern manufacturers, wo honds asunder, but from the most obvious necessity. And, should cease to pay tribute, und become independent. sir, I will not dieguise the opinion, which I sincerely enterHeaven deliver me and my constituents from such inde- tertain, that the innumerable ties of interest, which, under pendence ! Sir, I ara opposed to every sort of tribute, a system of free trade, would bind Great Britain to the whether foreigu or domestic. I hold with the memorable United States, would furnish a much more effectual guaransentiment of an illastrious patriot of South Carolina, “mil- ty against any aggressions upon our rights by that power, lions for defence, but not a cent for tribate." The com- ihan all the armies and navies, generals and admirals, munity that will patievtly subinit to pay tribute to any which our national resources could provide. As long as earthly power, is a community of slaves, whatever external we continue to be the best customers of that nation, it forms of liberty may be preserved to reconcile them to the will be impossible for ber ministry to maintain an unjust war degrading bondage.

against us. Her suffering and starving manufacturers, Bui, sir, this absurd notion, that by purchasing the manu- would make an appeal, to which no ministry could be in. factures of Great Britain we pay lier tribute, involves the different. And it is not to be doubted that the late war most contradictory and paradoxical consequences. It ne with that country was brought to a conclusion much more cessarily follows that all our foreigu commerce makes us by such an appeal, than by the achievements of our arms, tributary to the natious with whom wo carry it op. Nor or the skill of our diplomatists. is this all. If there should be found in the British Parlia I now feel it to be my duty to notice some remarks which ment & statesman of as much sagacity, as the gentleman gentlemen have thought proper to introduce into this defrom Massachusetts and his coadjutors, he would make it bate, on a very delicate topic, in no way connected with as clear to that body that Great Britain pays tribute to the measure on which we are deliberatiog, the United States, by purchasing our agricultural staples, The member from Massachusetts [Mr. Davis) has reas those geotlemen have made it to this body that we pay minded the committee that he is contending against "the tribute to Great Britain, by purchasing her manufactures. lordly owners of a thousand slaves, who are leagued with And thus, sir, it would result that a commerce, perfectly those over the water who wish to put their feet upon our free and mutually beneficial to both countries, would sub- necks, and take the bread out of our mouths." These were ject them to a mutual tribute utterly incompatible with bis words. The member from Rhode Island (Mr. BURGES) their independence as natione? This spirit of hostility to was pleased to add, with his accustomed courtesy and foreign commerce originated in the Gothic ages, when suavity of manner, that this was a contest between the the governments erected by the feudal barons on the bonest manufacturers and the “ upfeeling lashers of slaves," ruins of the Roman empire were organized upon milita- whom he represented as confederating with England in ry principles, and their whole polity arranged with a view favor of free trade. to a constant state of warfare. If war were the great end I am not unaware, sir, that a feeble argument, or a bad for which governments are formed, if it were a ibing to cause, may derive essential aid from an appeal to the prebe encouraged for its own sake, foreign commerce would judices of an audience; but I can assure the gentlemen certainly be a nuisance, for nothing has contribute:l more that they are perfectly welcome to all the advantage they to prevent wars in modern Europe, pot excepting the can gaiu by running comparisons between the North and benign influence of christianity itself. What is it that now the South on the subject of slavery. I will not ransack binds the human family of nations together! What is it the musty annals of New England, and particularly of Rbode that has cnused the sceptre of universal peace to wave Island, for a history of the origin and progress of the North over Europe for the last fifteen years Commerce, cum- American slave trade. But I will say, that I thank God merce, nothing but connerce. It has gradually extin- that I have no constituent who ever kidoapped a wretched guished that Vandal spirit which regards foreign nations as African ; tore him away, with the relentless spirit of avarice enemies in peace, and foreign commerce as a sort of trea- aud plunder, from the land of his nativity, and sold him sonable intercourse with a public enemy. This uuchris- into foreign bondage; and, saying this, I will ask the gentian spirit is almost exclusively confined to the autocrat tleniev from Rhode Island if they can put their hands upon of Russia and the American Congress, since the downfall their bearts, and make the same declaration. Whatever of that great Vandal of modern times, the emperor Na- may be the enormity of the slave trade-and from my soul poleon. The example of this military despot, this con- I believe there is not in the annals of human cupidity and queror and plunderer of nations, who regarded his sub- cruelty a more disgraceful and indelible blot--that sin jects as boru to fight for his glory, and not to labor for does not abide with ine or mine. If I have not been grossly their own happiness, bas been often quoted ou this floor misiuformed, men, notorious for a very discreditable paris authority for this warfare which you are waging against ticipation in that nefarious traffic, have figured in the balls foreign commerce. In bim were concentrated the spirit of Congress as the representatives of sovereigo States, and the power of all the feudal barons. Regarding all But such a representative never oame from South Caroliriations as his enemies, and war as his permanent oc- na, and I thank God for that. In fact, sir, every part of cupation, he rigorously excluded all the productions of the civilized world, and especially New England, had a foreign industry. His celebrated continental system” greater agency in the original enslavement of the African was the exact prototype of the “ American system.” It race than the southern States. Our ancestors bought them aimed to exclude the commerce of England and her al. from the ancestors of our New England brethren, and it lies from all the countries subjected by his military power. bas been well said that it is “ap absurdity without a paBut this very attempt overthrew him. The nations rallel in the whole history of human

extravagance and folly, of the continent would not submit to the privations im- to hear the Old England or Ney England, or any other posed upon them, merely to gratify luis ambition. And, portion of christendom, coolly lecturing us upon the sin sir, if France and Great Britain had been united by the of keeping our fellow-men in bondage. They

talk about the ten thousand ties of a free

and unrestricted commerce, I impresoriptible rights of mankind, and question the very have not a doubt that the desolating wara whicli, with titles which they became bound to warrant, by selling us very short intervals, drenched Europe in Ulood for nearly the property." "What, then, is the situation in wbich the a quarter of a century, could not have been maintained 1 people af the southern States are placed in regard to their

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