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Among other fruits of diligent inquiry, we have been favoured with an authentic copy of the plan or groundwork on which the Emperor Leopold wrote a circular letter, relative to the objects above-mentioned, to the principal courts; and which we have inserted in the History of Europe, under the conviction that a general attention to the wise and temperate principles and plans of Leopold may become subservient to the general peace and prosperity of all nations.


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Prepossession of the Turks in favour of their own Military Character. Hassan Ali

appointed Grand Vizier. His Character. Situation of the Ottoman Empire. Conduct of Selim. Treaty between the Porte and the King of Prussia. Continued Preparations for War between the Porte on the one Part, and the Russians and Austrians on the other. Death and Character of the Emperor Joseph. Succeeded by his Brother Leopold. Character and Conduct of Leopold on the Commencement of his Reign. His arduous Situation internal and external. Discontents and Disturbances in Hungary, the Milanese, and Tuscany, and Insurrection and Revolt of the Netherlands. Political State of Europe. Sextuple Alliance in opposition to the Confederation between Austria and Russia. Hostility and Animosity between the Courts of Berlin and Vienna ;-yet both these Powers inclined to Peace. A Congress for that Purpose proposed by Leopold. State and position of the Austrian and Prussian Armies. Eugerness of the Divan for a Continuation of the War. Progress of the Austrian Arms, m the Side of Turkey. Cessation of Hostilities and Armistice between the Turks and Austrians. Death and Character of Field Marshal Laudhon. Conferences and Convention at Reichenbach for the Purpose of a Pacification between Austria and Turkey, and for a Restoration of the Netherlands to the Dominion of Austriu. Prudent Conduct of Leopold, with regard to the Hungarians. Dissentions, Contests, and State of Parties in Hungary. Leopold elected King of the Romans, and crowned Emperor. Grants, as by free-will, to the Hungarians, what he had refused to their importunate Solicitations. Settlement of his Family, and Intermarriages. Various Acts of his Imperial Majesty's prudent Condescension and Favour. Peace concluded between the Court of Vienna und the Ottoman Porte at Sistovia.

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Progress of the Spirit of Freedom. Modified by the different Characters of Nations.

Singular Combination of a Spirit of Liberty with Aristocratical Pride and Religious Bigotry. Political Constitution of the Austrian Netherlands. Analogous to that of England. Arbitrary Government of the Emperor. Discontents of the People.


The reader is requested to observe, that two distinct series of pages have been followed in the present Volume, which commence respectively at the portions allotted to the “History of Europe,” and the “Chronicle."

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Suppression of Monasteries. Subversion of the Constitution. Imprisonments and

Emigrations. Emigrants from Brabant assemble at Breda. Sequestration of all

the Abbeys of Brabant. Eforts for the Prevention of Insurrection. Conspiracy

against the Austrian Government discovered. Attempt to check Emigration in

vuin. Declaration of the States of Brabant from Breda. Letter from the Cardinal

Archbishop of Malines to the Pope respecting the Conduct of the Emperor, and

State of the Country. Insurrections. Valour and Success of the Insurgents.

Engagement at Turnhout und at Tirlemont. dction between the Austrians and

Patriots in the open Field. The Patriots become Musters of the Town and Citadel

of Ghent. Relaxation of Discipline in the Austriun Armies. Advantages arising

io the Patriots from the Reduction of Ghent. The Emperor endeavours to

reconcile the Provinces to his Government by fair Promises. Daring Attempt of a

Band of Patriots in the Capital of Brabant. Succeeds. The Austriuns driven out

of Brussels. Rejoicings at Brussels. The States assume the Reins of Government.

Confederation between the States of Brabunt and those of Flanders. Acceded

to by all the other Provinces, ercept Limbourg. The United Belgic States

provide for their Security, by raising an Army. The Austrian Netherlands at

this Time the principal Object of Political Attention. Reflections on the usual

State of weaker, when united to stronger States. Splendid Hopes from the

Emancipation of the Provinces from the Yoke of Austria.


Miserable Effects of Neufanyled and Democratical Principles. Patriotic Assembly

instituted at Brussels. Their Reasonings and Claims. Political Constitution of

the Provinces of the Netherlands. The Principles and Pretensions of the Patriotic

Assembly offensive to the Nobility and Clergy. Means employed by these Orders

for quashing the Doctrines of the Democrats. Effects of these. Stute of Parties.

Preponderating Influence of the Clergy. Measures taken by the Nobility for the

Recovery of their Populurity. Without any considerable Effect. Popular Discon-

tents rise to a Pitch of Restlessness and Commotion. Troops einployed for the Preserva-

tion of the Peace. Jealousies between the ruling Powers and the Leaders of the Army.

General Vandermersch arrests Deputies sent with Orders to the Army from the Con-

gress. Declared Generalissimo by the Officers of the Army. Other Encrouchments

in the Power of Congress. Vandermersch suddenly and shamefully abandoned by the

Army. Imprisoned in the Citadel of Antwerp. Charges brought ugainst him. Duke

of Ursel persecuted by Congress. The Congress becomes unpopular and odious to the

Bulk of the People. Imprisonment of Vundermersch resented by his Countrymen the

People of Flanders. Declining State of the new Government. Expectations from

the Accession of Leopold II. to the Austrian Dominions. Almost, though not entirely

disappointed. Memorial of Leopold to the Inhabitants of the Netherlands. Criticisms

on ihat Piece. Conduct of Leopold vindicated. Charucter of Sovereign Princes in

general. The Firmness of Leopold revives a Party in his Favour. Quick Increase

of the Loyalists, in both Numbers and Courage. Arguments in Favour of a Reunion

with the House of Austria, and of Hereditary Monarchy in general. Letter to Con-

gress from the King of Prussia. Blind Ambition, Obstinacy, and Rashness of Con.

gress. Notification to Congress of the Terms of Reconciliation between his Imperial

Majesty and the Belgic Nation. Consented to by the three allied and mediating

Powers. Strange Obstinacy of Congress. A Degree of Reunion among the discor-

dant Parties in the Netherlands brought about by a common Hatred of the Austrian

Government. Hostilities renewed with great Animosity. Two of the Provinces that

remuined in Obedience to the Austrians. A great Resource to the Austrians. Rapid

Growth of Ambition. Character of the Brabonters. Wild Schemes of Conquest.

Repulse of the Brabanters from Limbourg. Various Encounters. A large Austrian

Army marches against the Low Countries. Attempts of Congress to rouze the Nation


Peace on the Ground of the Status quo, rejected by the Empress of Russia. Ambitious

Designs of the Empress, opposed by Prússia and Great Britain. Heroic Courage of

the King of Sweden. Means for gaining over the Nution at large to his Views, and

raising the necessary Supplies for the War. The King puts himself at the Head of

his Forces, and enters Russian Savolar. His Successes. Ten Thousand Russians

defeated by Three Thousand Swedes at Carnakoski. Reduction of the Russian Fort

Valkiala. Other Advantages. The King of Sweden at the Hend of his Galleys,

takes or destroys the Russian Galley-Fleet, in the Harbour of Frederickshum. En-

gagements between the Swedish Flect, under the Duke of Sudermania, and the Russian

Fleet. The Swedes prepare to make an Attack on the 'Town und Harbour of Wybourg.

Perilous Situation of the Swedes. Escape with immense Loss to Sweaborg. Defeat

of the Russian Fleet, under the Prince of Nassau, by the Swedish Fleet, under the

Command of the King. Inclination to Peace on the Part of Russia und Sweden.

Peace between these Powers concluded. The King of Sweden prepures to attack the

ruli Powers, and to restore the Monarchy of France. Meeting at Pilnitz. This

the Centre of the Affairs of Europe, 1791. Real Object of the Meeting at Pilnila.

Sul stance of a Circular Letter from the Emperor Leopold to the Sovereign Powers.

Russia and Sweden the first Powers that openly declared an Intention to succour the

Royal Family of France. Speech of Gustavus to the Swedish Dict. Reflections on the

Importance of Hereditary Wealth and Honours in a State. These a Burrier against

Monurchical Encroachments, on the one Hand, and the Levity of the People on the other.

Plan of the King of Sweden for a Descert on France. Discouraged by the Emperor,

but persevered in by the King. Assassination, Illness, Death, and Character of the

King of Sweden.


CH A P. V.

Rejoicings at Petersburgh on Account of the Peace with Sweden. An Ambition of Conquest

the ruling Passion of the Empress. The Pacification of Werelaiaa Countermine to the

Convention of Reichenbuch. Efects of this on the Minds of the Turks. Resentments

against the Swedes. Misplaced. The King of Sweden's Conduct in making Peace

with Russia vindicated. The haughty Spirit of the Empress reduced by the Allies

within the Bounds of greater Circumspection and Caution. Cessation of Hostilities

on the Danube. Vigorous Preparations for hur on the part of the Ottomans. Naval

Engagements. Heroic Achievements of a Greek Squadron, under the Culours and

Auspices of Russia, and of a Body of Greeks at Land. A Concert formed between

the Czarina and the Greeks, for emancipating that Nation from the Mahomedan

Yoke. Deputies from the People of Greece sent to Petersburgh. Flow received, Great

and extensive Plan of the Greeks, for expelling the Turks from Europe. Approved

by the Empress, who gives Earnest of future Succours in Case of certain Events.

Russian Plun for a Winter Campaign on the Danube. Turkish Army under Batal
Bey, on the Side of Asia, routed and totally ruined, The strong Fortress and Town of
Ismailow taken by Storn, after a noble Defence, by General Suvarof. Dreadful and

unheard of Messacre there. Various Actions between the Turks and Russians. Treda

ty of Peace concluded suddenly at Galatz.



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