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AUTHOR'S PREFACE . . . . . . . . xi-xiii

I The LAND AND THE PEOPLE . . . . . 3-39

Distinctive characteristics of North and South. The birth

of the national idea. The government of the Constitution.

Territorial limits of the United States in 1783. Cession

of western lands to the United States. Population in 1790.
The nation a slaveholding one. Gradual disappearance
of slavery in the North. The slave and free colored pop-
ulation in the South in 1860. Free colored population in
the North. Relation of climate and slavery at the North.
Early sentiment against extension beyond the Mississippi.
Slavery prohibited in the Northwest Territory, but per-
mitted in Southwest. The Missouri Compromise. Ac-
quisition of the Floridas. Westward migration. New
free States. Texas admitted. Upper California pur-
chased. Extent of territory at close of Mexican War. Set-
tlement of California. Why California adopted a free-
State Constitution. South lacks population to found new
slave States. Alarm of the South for slavery. The Com-
promise of 1850. The Kansas-Nebraska Bill. The con-
flict in Kansas. The Dred Scott decision declared slavery

national. Conditions that planted slavery in the South.

Effect of foreign immigration on sectional growth. The

North not generally hostile to slavery. Economic disad-

vantages of slavery at the South. Economic contrast of

North and South.

II The GROWTH OF the Slave PowER . . 41-155

Legislative control of slavery. Slave population 1790-1860.

Southern agriculture and slave breeding. The political


aspect of slavery. Congressional representation of free
and slave States 1790-1860. Mechanical inventions and
northern progress. More slave territory demanded. Polit-
ical dominion of the South. Claim of property right in
slaves. The nation responsible for the existence of slav-
ery. Slave area in 1857. Comparative value of slave and
free labor. Condition and treatment of the slave. Money
value of slaves. Slave breeding profitable. Slavery the
monopoly of the cotton planter. Condition of the poor
whites. Cotton growing the essential ground of slavery.
Intellectual expansion restricted in the slaveholding area.

The defense of slavery. The lesson of the patent grants

of 1846. Comparative railroad facilities in slave and free

States in 1850. Value of manufactures in 1839 in slave

and free States. Educational facilities and illiteracy in

slave and free States in the early forties. Newspapers

North and South. Attitude of the churches toward slavery

in 1840. The "three-fifths" clause a power for slavery.

The predominance of the slave power in public affairs till

1860. The Liberty party appears. Early anti-slavery dec-

larations and decrees. Slavery compromises in the Con-

stitution. The Anti-Slavery Society. Sectional antagonism

inaugurated. Congress forbids circulation of anti-slavery

literature in the South. The first fugitive-slave law. Per-

sonal liberty laws. Platform of the Liberty party in 1844.

Platforms of the Free Soil party in 1848 and 1852. First

platform of the Republican party. The Democratic party

platform of 1856. The popular vote of 1856. Slavery and

State sovereignty. Lincoln formulates an anti-slavery pro-

gramme. His debates with Douglas. His Cooper Insti-

tute speech in proof of the power of Federal control of

slavery. Vice-President Breckenridge's statement of the

slavery issue. Republican party platform of 1860. Other

party platforms of 1860. The vote of 1860. South Carolina

prepares to secede. Crittenden's Compromise. Buchanan

hesitates to strengthen the defenses in the South. South

Carolina passes an ordinance of secession. Other States

secede. South Carolina's “Declaration of Causes" and

"Address to the People of the Slaveholding States."


eration and Union. State sovereignty conflicts with na-
tional administration. The Annapolis convention.
Strength of the State sovereignty claim. Growth of the
national sentiment. The status of State sovereignty in the
framing of the Constitution. National and federal quali-
ties of the Constitution. Original proposed amendments.
Test case of National versus State Sovereignty. The
Eleventh Amendment. State sovereignty allied with slav-
ery. The Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799. The
Virginia resolution of 1798. Nullification as interpreted
by Madison, Jefferson and Calhoun, Early enunciations
of the right of secession: Quincy's declaration; Hartford
Convention report; Rawle's view of the Constitution.
The War of 1812 strengthens the national spirit. The
New West adopts a "broad construction" view. Internal
improvements and the Tariff Act of 1816. Earlier tariff
acts. New England demands a protective tariff. The
"Tariff of Abominations" (1828). The South opposes
tariff legislation. Calhoun's nullification doctrine (“The
South Carolina Exposition"). South Carolina passes an
ordinance of nullification. President Jackson issues "ex-
position" proclamation. The "Force Bill.” The Ver-
planck bill. South Carolina repeals nullification ordinance.
Calhoun's State sovereignty contention. The Webster-
Hayne debate. The annexation of Texas. Southern
States threaten to secede. Sectional controversy narrowed
down to slavery. The Southern Confederacy formed.
The Confederate Government and Constitution. Differ-
ences between the National and the Confederate Constitu-
tions. Lincoln's first inaugural. The Thirteenth Amend-

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The FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR . . . 221-268
First trouble over Charleston forts. Anderson retires to
Fort Sumter. South Carolina occupies Fort Moultrie.
Buchanan misreads the signs. Secretary Black checks the
president's policy. Anderson to be reinforced. The Star
of the West fired on. Last efforts at compromise. South-
ern senators and representatives withdraw from Congress.
Governor Pickens demands surrender of Fort Sumter.
Alexander H. Stephens's address on the Confederate Con-
stitution. Question of the Border States. Lincoln consents
to evacuate Forts Sumter and Pickens. He reverses his
decision. Orders reinforcements of the forts. Futile nego-


tiations for surrender of Sumter. Bombardment and evac-
uation of the fort. Lincoln calls for troops. Attack on
Union soldiers at Baltimore. Blockade of the Confederate
coast. Harper's Ferry and Gosport navy yard abandoned.
General Lee accepts leadership of Virginia forces. North-
ern volunteers for the defense of Washington. Richmond
becomes the Confederate capital. The members of the
Confederacy. Great Britain's neutrality as viewed by
North and South. Battle at Manassas Junction. Mc-
Dowell retired, McClellan in command. Congress passes
a sequestration act. Frémont transcends the scope of the
act. Re-election of Davis and Stephens. Differences be-
tween Scott and McClellan. McClellan's in activity. The
battle of Ball's Bluff. Seizure of Mason and Slidell. Re-
pressive measures in the border States. Financial expe-
dients of 1862. The legal-tender controversy. Lincoln
orders McClellan to assume the offensive. Capture of Fort
Henry. Fort Donelson surrendered. Duel of the Merri-
mac and the Monitor. Grant replaced by Smith. Is re-
stored. The battle of Pittsburg Landing. Albert S. John-
ston fatally wounded. Surrender of New Orleans. Slav-
ery abolished in Federal Territories. Lincoln's plan of
compensated emancipation. Hunter's emancipation proc-
lamation countermanded by the president. Summary of
results of the first year of the war.



erates. The battle of Antietam. Lee retreats into Vir-
ginia. Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation. Sentiment
of the North and in Congress as to emancipation. Mili-
tary conditions in the West. Bragg's invasion of Ken-
tucky. Buell replaced by Rosecrans. Burnside replaces
McClellan. Estimate of McClellan. The battle of Fred-
ericksburg. Burnside resigns and is succeeded by Hooker.
Cabinet dissension. The final Emancipation Proclamation.
"Copperhead opposition.” The Conscription Act Finan-
cial legislation. Arrest and conviction of Vallandigham.
Lincoln's defence of the suspension of habeas corpus. The
creation and admission of West Virginia. The battle of
Chancellorsville. Death of Stonewall Jackson. Summary

of the results of the second year of the war.

Lee invades the North. Impelling motives of the move-
ment. Preliminary Confederate movements in Virginia.
Pennsylvania entered. Early seizes York. Lee occu-
pies Chambersburg. Hooker's operations hampered by the
War Department. He is superseded by Meade. Man-
Quvres of the opposing armies toward Gettysburg. The
first day's battle at Gettysburg. The positions of the com-
batants. The second day's struggle. Operations of the
third day. Pickett's disastrous charge. Lee's army re-
treats. The cost of the Gettysburg field. Grant's expe-
dition against Vicksburg. “The Campaign of the Bayous."
Grant's differences with McClernand. Operations against
Grand Gulf and Fort Gibson. Grant takes the city of
Jackson and reaches the rear of Vicksburg. A general
assault fails. The long siege and final surrender. Draft
riots in New York. Peace efforts. Enlistment of negro
slaves in the Union army. Retaliatory measures of the
Confederacy Negro soldiers in the Confederate army.
The attitude of Great Britain toward the conflict. France
offers mediation. Diplomatic difficulties with Great
Britain over Confederate war vessels. The Confederate
representative recalled from London. Mexican affairs in
relation to the Union and the Confederacy. Difficulties as
to exchange of prisoners. Resolution of the Confederate
Congress as to negro prisoners. Treatment of Union sol-
diers. Confederate prisoners. The battles of Chicka-
mauga and Lookout Mountain. Vallandigham again at-
tacks the administration. The writ of habeas corpus sus-

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