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perished and rotted. They are used to be eaten rosted in “ the athes. Some, when they be so rosted, infuse them and “ fop them in wine; and others, to give them the greater “ grace in eating, do boil them with prudes. Howioerer “ they be dressed, they comfort, nourish, and strengthen the “ bodie, procure bodily luft, and that with greediness.”
Shakespeare alludes to this quality of potatoes, in the Merry Wives of Windsor.
-- Let the sky rain potatoes,
A tempejt of provocation come.
In the Good Hufwives Jewell, a book of cookery published in 1596, I find the following receipt to make a tarte that is a € urge to a mail or woman.
“ Take twoo Quinces and twoo or three Burre rootes and a POTA“ TON and pare your POTATON and scrape your rootes and put " them into a quarte of wine, and let them boy le till they bee tender “ and put in an ounce of dates, and when they be boiled tender, “ drawe them through a strainer, wine and all, and then put in the
yolkes of eight egges, and the braynes of three or four cocke-spar. “ rowes, and it aine them into the other, and a little rose-water, and “ seeth thein all with lugar, cinnamon, and ginger, and clores and “ nace, and put in alitie sweet butter, and set it upon a chafing dish " of coles between two platters, to let it boyle till it be something “ bigge."
Gerard elsewhere observes in his herbal, that « Potatus
may serve as a ground or foundation whereon the cunning « confectioner or sugar-baker may worke and frame many “ comfortable conserves and restorative sweetmeats.”
The fame venerable botanist likewise adds, that the flakk of Clot-Burre as being eaten rawe with salt and pepper, or boiled “ in the broth of fat meat, is pleasant to be eaten and stirrethup “ venereal motions.” It likewise ftrengtheneth the back, &c.”
Speaking of dates, he fays, that “thereof be made divers " excellent cordial comfortable and nourishing medicines, and “ that procure luft of the body very mightily." He also "mentions Quinces as having the same virtues.
I suppose every one to be acquainted that sparrows on account of their falaciousness were facrificed toVenus. The remarks on the other articles that compose this medical piece of pastry, are inserted, to prove that they are all consistent in their operas zion and tend to promote the same purposes as the PotaTON. It must by this time have occurred to the reader that in the kingdom where potatoes are eaten in their greatest quantities, the powers of the body are supposed to be found in their
highest degree of perfeétion. Some accounts given by ancient travellers of the Rhizophagi might be introduced on this occafion; but perhaps enough has been already said on the subject.
I must add, that having diligently perused all such editions of Apicius Coelius as have yet fallen in my way, I would not justly characterize the most skillful of the Roman cooks were I to speak of him as an artist qui miscuit utile dulci. To please the palate, in those times, seems to have been the only consideration. The receipt already quoted, sufficiently proves our ancestors to have had other views. Perhaps, however, some particulars relative to the kitchen physic of the ancients might have been found in the Elephantidos Libelli, which as Suetonius informs us, were once in the possession of the emperor Tiberius. An exception to my former remark indeed occurs on the testimony of Ælius Lampridius (or Ælius Spartianus) who in the life of Heliogabalus, aflerts that prince to have eaten the heels of camels, the combs of cocks, and the tongues of peacocks and nightingales, by way of prevention against the Epilepsy.
COLLINS. (P. 133.)
It is as lawful. For we would count give much to as violent thefts. Thus the ist folio. We should read, I believe,
For we would give much to use violent thefts,
The present licentious alteration was made by Rowe, and is filently followed by Pope, Theobald, Hanier, Warburton, and Capel.
T.T. (P. 148.) Make wells and Niobe's, &c. Terhaps we should read welland, i. e. welling; though I do not recollect that Shakespeare has any where else used that old form of participle. It is very common in Spenser. The same observation, I have since discovered to be anticipated by Mr. Sympson in his notes on B. Jonson.
T. T. (P. 194)
thofe springs. On chalic'd fowers that lies. It may be observed, with regard to this apparent false concord, that in very old English. the 3d perfon plural of the present tense ended in eth, as well as the singular; and often familiarly, in es, as might be exemplified from Chaucer, &c. Nor was this antiquated Idiom quite worn out in our author's time, as appears from the following passage in Romeo and Julict. vol. X. p. 35
“ And cakes the elf-locks in foul Nuttich hairs
as well as from many others in the Reliques of ancient English Poetry.
PERCY (P. 205.) nicely.
Depending on their brands. I am not sure that I understand this passage. Perhaps Shake speare meant that the figures of the Cupids were nicely prized on their inverted torches, one of the legs of each of them being taken off the ground, which might render such a support necessary.
STEEVENS. (P. 207.)- her attendants are all sworn and honourable.
It was anciently the custom for the attendants on our nobility and other great personages (as it is now for the servants of the king) to take an oath of fidelity, on their entrance into office. In the houshould bouk of the 5th earl of Northumberland (compiled A. D. 1512. it is expressly ordered [page 49] that “what person soever he be that comyth to my “ Lordes service, that incontynent after he be entered in the “ chequyrroull [check-roll] that he be SWORN in the
countyng hous by a gentillmap-usher or yeman-usher in the
presence of the hede officers; and on theire absence before “ the clerke of the kechynge either by such an oath as is in * the Book of Othes, yff any such Coath] be, or ells by “ such a oth as shall seyme befte to their discrecion."
Even now every servant of the king's, at his first appointment, is sworn in, before a gentleman usher, at the lord chamberlain's office.
A miracle it was to see them grown
With fails and oars to help at all essays." STEEVENS. (P. 257.) the Rudilock would &c. Is this an allusion to the babes of the wood, or was the notion of the red breast covering dead bodies, general before the writing that ballad?
PERCY. (P. 274.) - this carle, Carle is used by our old writers in opposition to a gentleman. See the poem of John the Reeve.
PERCY. Carlot is a word of the fame signification, and occurs in our author's As you like it.
STEDVENS, (P. 350.)'That's a shealed peafcod. The robing of Richard Ild's effigy in Westminster Abbey is wrought with peascods open and the peas cut; perhaps in 3
allusion to his being once in full posseffion of sovereignty, but soon reduced to an empty title.
TOLLET. (P. 387.) SIZES, certain portions of bread, beer or other victuals, which in public societies are set down to the account of particular persons: a word still used in colleges of the universities.
(P. 407.) bless thy five wits. So the five senses were called by our old writers. Thus in the very ancient interlude of THE FYVE ELEMENTS, one of the characters is SENSUAL APPETITE, who with great simplicity thus introduces himself to the audience,
I am callyd sensual apetyte,
I comforte the WYTTYS FYVE;
To all creaturs alyve.
PERCI. (P. 412.) Dr. Percy would substitute the following note, for that which now stands in its place.
Mice and Rats and such small deere
Have been Tom's food for seven long yeare. This diftich has excited the attention of the critics. Instead of deere, Dr. Warburton would read, geer, and Dr. Grey cheer. The ancient reading is, however, established by the old metrical romance of Sir Bevis, which Shakespeare had probably often heard sung to the harp, and to which he ellewhere alludes as in the following instances. As Bevis of Southampton fell upon afcapart
Hen. VI. Act. 2.
That Bevis was believed. This distich is part of a description there given of the hardships suffered by Bevis when confined for seven years in a dungeon.
“ Rattes and mice and such smal dere
“ Was his meate that seven yere. Sig. F. iij.
PERCY. (P. 414.) Child Rowland, The word Child (however it came to have this sense) is often applied to KNIGHTS, &c. in old historical fongs and romances ; of this, innumerable instances occur in the Reliques of ancient Englib poetry. See particularly in Vol. I. S. IV. V. 97, where in a description of a' battle between two' knights, we find these lines,
" The Eldridge knighte, he prick'd his steed:
“ Syn Cawline bold abode:
eo foon in iunder fode. See in the fame volumes the ballads concerning the child of Eile, child waters, child Maurice [Vol. III. S. XX.] &c. The fame idion occurs in Spenser's Faerie Queen, where the famous knight Sir Tristram is frequently called Child Tristram. See B. 5. c. II. ft. 8. 13. B. 6. c. 2. ft. 36. ibid. c. 8. f. 15.
PERCY. (P. 473 ) And fire us hence like foxes. So in Harrington's translation of Ariosto, Book 27. Itanza 17.
Ev'n as a foxe whom smoke and fire doth fright
- carry coals
This phrase continued to be in use down to the middle of the last century in a little satirical piece of Sir John Birkenhead, intitled, “Two centuries [of Books] of St. Paul's Church. yard, &c.” published after the death of K. Cha. I. N° 22. page 50, is intitled “ FIRE, FIRE! a small manual, dedicated ' to Sir Arthur Haselridge; in which it is plainly proved by a “ whole chauldron of scripture, that John Lilburn will not « CARRY COALS. By Dr. Gouge.
• PERCY. (P. 12.) Rom. Out
I take out not to be an imperfect part of a sentence cut off by apofiopesis; but rather the interjection still used in the north, where they say Out! much in the same sense as we say Sye! ------ Romeu indeed afterwards tags a sentence with it. but that he is led into by Benvolio's supplement to the first Out. So p. 116. Out alas! We's cold.
PERCY. (P. 26.) The date is out of such prolixity. Shakespeare has written a marque which the reader will find introduced in the 4th act of the Tempest. It would have been difficult for the reverend annotator to have proved they were discontinued during any period of Shakespeare's life.