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A frequentative suffix is one which denotes many repetitions of the same action, as in glimmer, prattle.

Doublets are two words derived from the same source, but reaching English by different ways. Most of these are from Latin : : (1) direct at the Renaissance, (2) previously from Norman French and Low Latin. The latter, of course, are most altered. Abbreviation and abridgmentboth from L. ab=from, and brevis=short-afford a good example.

Degradation in meaning signifies that the word has gradually changed its meaning to something worse, e.g., gossip, which formerly meant a god-relation, and now means an idle, talking woman. Degradation is a common tendency in words, much more so than than elevation of meaning.

Adage, L. adagium, a proverb (ad, to; agium, a saying), a

saying to. afeard. An example of the transposition of r, as seen in bird

for brid and burst for brast. Afraid is from F. effrayer,

to frighten. L. ex, out; frigidare, to chill. affeered, confirmed. O.F. afеurer, to fix an official price.

L. ad, to, and forus, price. ague, a fever fit. O.F. agu, sharp (M.F. aigu), from L.

acutus, sharp. alarm, a call to arms. From Ital. all’arme, to arms; a word

borrowed probably in the Crusades. anointed, smeared with ointment. From L. in, in ; unctus,

smeared, through F. enoindre. anon, immediately. From A.S. on an, in one. aroint thee, get out of the way. Roint thee is a corruption of

Scand. rime ta, make thee room. asleep, on sleep. The a is a preposition shortened from an or

on, as in abed, aboard. auger, like adder, has lost an initial 1,

and should be nauger. It means a nave-piercer. From A.S. nafu, the nave of a wheel, and gar, a gorer or piercer.

avaunt, begone. Shortened from the F. en avant, forward ;

avant being from the L. ab, from ; ante, before. avouch, to declare, to make good. From L. ad, to; vocare,

to call; through F. vocher, to call. Balm, an aromatic plant. Balm and balsam are doublets,

balsam being direct from the L. balsamum, while balm

comes through the O.F. bausme. bane, harm, destruction. A.S. bana, a murderer. banquet, a feast. Meaning derived from the table on which

the feast was set. F. banc, a bench, with diminutive

ending et; a little bench. Banc is from G. banc, a bench. beguile, to deceive. A hybrid word, the be being the intensive

English suffix, and guile being the O.F. guile, which again is from an O.H.G. word wil. Cf., warrant and guarantee, ward and guard, wise and guise, with wile

and guile. beldam, an old woman. An ironical use of F. belle dame, fair

lady. From L. bella, fair; domina, a lady. A doublet

therefore with belladonna. benison, blessing. From 0.F. beneison. L. benedictionem, a

blessing (bene, well; dictio, a saying). A doublet there

fore with benediction. betimes, in good time. A.S. be, by; tima, time. blanch, to whiten. O.F. blanc, white, which is from 0.H.G.,

blanch, shining. bodements, announcements. A hybrid, from A.S. bodian, to

announce, with L. ending -ment. botch, to patch, to repair roughly. From Du. botsen, to

strike or repair. boot, advantage. A.S. bot, gain ; allied to better. Bootless is

still used. braggart, a boaster. Celtic brag, boastful; -art is a contemp

tuous ending, as in dotard, dullard. brandish, to shake a sword. F. brandir, to shake, from

M.H.G. brant, a sword.

broil, a disturbance, perhaps a form of brawl, and Celtic in

origin. Welsh broch, a tumuit; brochell, a tempest. bruited, rumoured. F. bruit, a noise; and this probably from

Celtic broch, a tumult, and therefore from the same

source as broil. Carousing, drinking deeply. F. carousser, to quaff, from G.

gar, completely, aus, out; i.e. to drink right out. chalice, a cup. O.F. calice, from L. calix, calicem, a goblet. challenge, a claim, defiance. 0.F. chalonge, a dispute; from

L. calumnia, a false accusation. A doublet therefore

with calumny. chamberlain, one who has the care of rooms. O.F. chambre

lenc. The lenc seems to be German in origin, and to be

siinilar in force to the Eng. -ling, in Atheling. charnel, containing carcases. O.F. charnel, from L. carnalis,

carnal (caro, flesh). chaudron, a large kettle. O.F. chaldron, from L. caldarium, a

vessel used for heating (calidus, hot). chops or chaps, jaws. Scandinavian in origin. From Sw. käft,

the jaw. clog, a hindrance. A form of clag, to stick, and hence con

nected with clay. closet, a sinall room. A diminutive of O.F. clos, an enclosed

space; from L. claudo, clausum, to shut. coigne, a corner. F. coing or coin, a corner; from L. cuneus,

a wedge. crew, a company of people. Used generally in a contemptuous sense now, except in “ship's crew.'

Ic. kru or gru,

a swarin.

dainty, pleasant. O.F. daintié, from L. dignitatem, worth. A

doublet with dignity. deftly, neatly. Deft is a form of Eng. daft, foolish, inno

cent; but has kept the better meaning. Both from A.S. dafan, to fit, suit.

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deign, to condescend. O.F. deigner, to deign; from L. dignari,

to deem worthy. disease, sickness. From O.F. des, apart, aise. The origin of

aise (ease) is unknown. drenched, filled with drink. A causal form of drink, meaning

to make to drink. A.S. drencan, to make to drink

(drincan. to drink). dun, dull brown in colour. A.S. dunn, dark. dwindle, to waste away. The “d” has crept in. From A.S.

duinani, to languish. Earnest, a pledge. The “t" has crept in, as in whilst,

amongst, and like the “d” in dwindle. From W.,

ernes, a pledge. epicures, followers of Epicurus, who taught that the pursuit of

pleasure was the only good. Faint, weary. O.F. feint, feigned, from L. fingere, to pretend.

It has gone through the meanings pretence, cowardice,

weakness. fantastical, imaginary. O.F. fantasie, the fancy; from Gr.

phantasia, imagination. A doublet of fanciful. fee, payment. A.S. feo, cattle, property. fell, cruel. A.S. fel, fierce. fie, an interjection of disgust. Scand. fie, a sound-word, from

the action of blowing away. fiend, an enemy. A S. feond, an enemy, a hater. foisons, plenty. Now obsolete. O.F. foison, abundance; from

L. fusionem, a pouring out. frieze, the broad band above the shaft of a column. O.F. frise. fry, the spawn of fish. Scand. frjo, spawn. furbish, to trim. 0.F.fourbir, to furbish, from M.H.G. vürben,

to make bright. Gallowglass, a heavy-armed foot soldier. Irish, gallo-glach;

from giolla, a man-servant, and gleac-aim, I struggle.

guise, way, manner. O.F. guise ; from M.H.G. wise, a way.

A doublet with wise, which has been filtered through the

French, like guile and guarantee. gulf, a narrow inlet of the sea. F. golfe; from Gr. kolpos, a

deep hollow, a creek. Harbinger, a fore-runner. 0.F. herberger, to lodge (M.F.

auberge, an inn). From M.H.G. hereberga (heri, an

army; bergan, to shelter). hautboy, a musical instrument, also called oboe. O.F. haut

bois, high wood, from its high tone. F. bois ; from

L. boscus, a bush. Haut is from L. altus, high. hie, to hasten. A.S. higian, to hasten. hurlyburly, a tumult. The burly is merely a repetition of

hurly, to strengthen it. Hurly is from O.F. huller, to

howl; L. ululare, to howl. husbandry, carefulness, economy. Husband is borrowed from

the Scand. hus, house, and buandi, dwelling. Idiot, one weak in intellect. F. idiot, a natural fool; from Gr.

idiotes, a private, and therefore an uneducated, person. Journey, a day's travel. F. journée, a day, a day's travel. L.

diurnus, daily. jovial, mirthful. The planet Jupiter was in the old astrology

the joyful star, and all born under its influence were sure to have hopeful happy dispositions. O.F. jovial; L.

jovialis, pertaining to Jove or Jupiter. juggling, tricking. Juggler is from O.F. jogleor; L. joculator,

a joker. jutty, a projection. Jut is a corruption of jet. O.F. jetter, to

cast out; from L. jactare, to fling. Kern, an Irish soldier. Irish ceatharnach, a soldier. knell, to toll. A.S. cnyllan, to beat noisily. Largess, a liberal gift. F. largesse, bounty; from L. largitio,

a giving.

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