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and the professors in each have generally possessed the same allvantages when they commence their

professional career. With these THE WANDERER,

similar qualifications at the outset,

it may be pleasing to examine which NO. 62,

acquires most celebrity in the progress of the course.

The proverb indeed says, comparisons are odious,

and it says truly when the object is Among those avocations wbich re- to elevate without merit or to de. quire mental exertion and capacity, press without fault ; but we trust custom, with perhaps too little dis- nothing invidious will be found in an crimination, has considered three attempt to ascertain the comparative only as learned and liberal profes- eminence of the professional characsions. The necessity of these in ter in the United States. society, and their influence in a free The predominence of merit congovernment, make them peculiarly stitues professional as it does indi. the objects of respect and attention. vidual character. In each of these It is natural to pay deference to intel-avocations individuals will be found lectual eniinence, to reverence that of great and original talents, and of dignity, which is required by supe- bold and aspiring minds, wonderful riority of mind, and to admire the ulike for the vigor of intellectual influence of those powers which en strength and correctness of moral able man to govern while he seems sentiment ; and though severe, it is only to persuade.

yet truth to remark,that in each,chaThe three learned professions racters will be found who add nothpresent a field for eininence and ing to their profession but disgrace honor, which is bounded only by the and dishonor. finite nature of the human mind. There are several reasons, which Genius may wanton without re- contribute to make the profession of straint, and labor forever find new Law one of the most eminent in this obstacles to remove, every faculty is country. It is in itself a profession employed, every sense occupied, where the appearance of talent will and the whole soul called forward never answer for the reality. Where to display its most secluded opera- a man is to make an impression by tions.

the weight of his own intellectual For practice in either of these pro- powers and the solidity of his mind. fessions, custom and necessity e Where there is a free competition qually demand a good education as to every interest, and motives sufthe ground work of respectability ; ; ficiently strong to engage the ut



most exertion. When justice is partial eye, and estimate his capaci. administered with impartiality,noth- ty with accuracy and truth. ing crer bends through favor to the If the presence of numerous spec6.dvocate. His genius may com- tators has any influence on an ammand admiration, liis acuteness and bitious mind, (and that the influence penetration may elucidate the ab- is extensive nobody will deny,) suxstrusities of truth; and the artfulnessly when a part of the body is comof ingencious sophistry, woven by posed of men able to estimate prothe dexterity and skiil of an original fessional talents, and versed by exmind may perplex and obscure what perience in all the duties of the is perhaps not consistent enough to speaker, it must give a double spirit stard in open light. But it is to the to lis exertions and new vigour to possession of these talents, that the liis strength. advocate owes lois reputation and his But the influence of such a toriy wealth. The necessities of man- of censors on professional practice kind drive them for refuge to these is not merely to give animation to great talents, and they seek them the ambitious, or spirit to those wlo wherever they can be found. are desirous of fame, but it keels

The profession of law is attended the faculties and talents, which will. with this farther mean of creating out such restraint would luxuriate eminence, that most of its practice beyond their strength, into a course is in the eye of the country, open to that gives force by compression the inspection and remark of every and power by proper directioncritical observer. A man has an With other circumstances equal, inducenient for exertion when his this superintendance of a set of men merits are to be displayed on a who are adequate to the task, is sufgrand theatre, and before a numer- ficient to give pre-eminence to the ous audience. When the rivalship law. They encourage the diffident, of talents is to be seen and deter- they reward the industrious, and mined, when he is placed on a race they direct with proper care those ground with emulous rivals, desir- scattered talents, that would become cus of partaking new honor's or too diffuse for any valuable purpose. jealous of former reputation, and The profession of Physic does, 'when by sedulous attention to the like that of law, require great talents business in which he is engaged, to ensure success. It calls for tha: he is not only serving the interest nice discrimination and judicious of his client, but ministering at the manner which can trace the bound same time to his vanity and his aries of different diseases, when a'. wealth.

most amalgamated, and that quick There is yet another cause of pro- perception and prompt determi. fessional eminence exclusively con- nation, which can alone contend fined to the law. Its practice is with the formidable ministry of conducted before the most learned death. But the practice of the phy. and respectable of the profession, sician is confined to the dark chan. who are selected for their erudition bers of the sick, and it is but rarely and skill. The Judges form an the world either wishes to know or Areopagus of dignity, impressing can get information what system be a respect and regard on the mind has followed, or which among the of the advocate, and place him learned brethren of Esculapius he before able and intelligent censors, has taken for his patron. It was who regard his actions with an im-1 wittily remarked by a pavier when

speaking to a physician, “ Mine, sir, effects will undoubtedly increase is not the only bad work the ground the quantity of knowledge, and the covers.” This was intended for hu- respectabisity of all concerned in mor, but it has all the pungency of disseminating it. truth. The mistakes of a physician The establishment of medical soare kindly conocaled by the grave. cieties in various districts of the Few understand the merit of his country, a liberality in the commuprescriprions or their effects on the nication of discoveries either in the patient; he may make experiments method of treatment or the comat pleasure and few have sufficient position of medicine, that free cominformation to detect the empyri. inunication of important informacism.

tion which makes the experience of These circumstances are draw- one the common besefit of all, and backs on the professional eminence the resolution of excluding from of playsicians. Some indeed, and we the general confidence those ignohope a large nunber, making a lant pretenders who, under the decomplete professional knowledge nomination of remedies, are too oí. their sole object and desire, have ten distributing poison, and trifling acquired reputation never to be with life-the important discoveries shaken and been distinguished bless- made in the sciences immediately ings to their country, by means of connected with physic, and the entheir intelligence and skill. But creasing liberality which does not mankind are generally influenced confine within prescribed systems, by human motives. Where there merely because they have always are powerful inducements for exer- been in use these will extend their tion, there is most commonly the beneficial effects and the general greatest talent, and where there is a professional reputation of the dispossibility of gliding through life ciples of Esculapius will yield to without labor', many will be content- no body of men in any one point of ed to float on the stream ofignorance. excellence.

Hence, as the profession of med Of the profession of divinity we icine is destitute of many of those would speak with respect. It is of powerful attractions which lead to the first consequence in society, as eminence and celebrity, and has in it in a great measure regulates the addition those circumstances, which manners, morals and lives of the favour in some degree ignorance citizens, and far be it from us to and deception, it has not attained the lessen its influence by diminishing greatest general professional emi-from its respect. If we point olid rience, and though boasting many the obstacles which retard its emi. distinguished professors whose la- nence, we do no more than show bors have deprived death of many the means which can by a ciftlererit of bis stufis and weakened in some regulation increase its respectabili instances the force of his bow, it has tv and influence. To a really good not equalled in general reputation man the desire of performing his a more popula. profession. Yet, ministerial duty would be a suli. although this is in the opinion of cient motive for extrlion; and althe Wanderer as to its present sit- though in the clerical robes there is vation, it must be confessed that a large proportion who p:1946 arrangements are forming among honorable part, yet it must be coilthe professors of the healing art 10 fessed there are others who wear establish those regulations whose them as the mere liveries of Lu53


ness, Such men want a greater stimulus for exertion than the pro- The history of literature, or rather the session of divinity affords. The progress of the human mind, is a sth. establishment of our clergy gives

ject of interesting and curious enquiry.

In the enjoyment of those literary besebut little reward for exertion, it

fits which the labour of successide sza holds ont few enticements to ambi

has procured, , we are indeed tao aft to tion, no remuneration for unexpect forget the obscurity that once gathered ed or unusual labour. The beni. round the mind, and the means by whici fice is an estate for life; carelessness

that ignorance was dissipated wlach

kept inactive the noblest part of 1723A. seldom operates a forfeiture, and in

By a slow but regular frogression, tke dusty gives it no increase of value.

ficulties and genius haec enlarge it! We should not enquire whether

every successive generatian comend

the business of life with the astumtame this ought to produce negligence of all that experience which past uges and inattention; but, in deciding on had acquired. The history of these a question of fact, inerely ascertain events must be interesting to the lovers whether it does or does not ? The

of literature, and for that purpose we violent disputes on the faith, at a

introduce the following able sketch from

an European publication of the first retime when toleration was hardly

reputation. Let it not be thrown aside understood, kept alive the vigilance because it is long, and cast not that reof ministers who had to fight with flection on your own taste, as to say it is weapons of logic in order to make too tedious to be read with atientis. their claims to its defence. But at

The gold is not procured from the ment

without dificulty, nor is it collected present a milder spirit ensures tran

daily use without the necessity of labour. quility; though sectaries abound, polemical divinity is in very little SKETCH of the History Of LITERAuse, and the ambition and zeal of

Ture in EUROPE from the AGE Of Av.
GU3T US to that of Lovis XIV. By x

x. the public defenders of Christianity is altogether confined within the

If we cast our eyes back upon limits of their own parish, and in the ages of Greece and Rome, ve the regular discharge of parochial behold prodizies of human intellect duties. And under these circum- that form the pre-eminent glory of stances it is not to be wondered that the human race. From these, men the profession of which we speak descended into darkness and a long has been little more than nominally night of ignorance. But genius a rival to others whose professors again rose from a deep sleep, and existed by their importance in pub- first imitating, afterwards rivalled, lic opinion, and the merit by which the excellence it admired. All that they obtained it.

is proposed at present is, a rapid In this rapid sketch we have at- sketch of facts, without any inquiry tempted to illustrate the causes into their causes; and a brief which lead to professional emi- ry of letiers and arts froin the sea nence, and their effects on the sev- cline of the Augustan age till die eral professions. We have no envy revival of taste under the Medici, to gratisy, nor any prejudice to and that full splendour which sucplease. We mean no invirious dis- ceeded the time of Louis XIV. tinction, and trust to the candlor of Although it has been justiy obthe reader to excuse our venturing served, that the triumph of the arts, on ground where it may perhaps be among the ancients as well as the difficult to step without danger, moderns, is peculiarly to be found

in times of great political power and


greatness; yet to render the tri- and feelings were to be dereloped, uinph solid and durable, something a crowd of obstacles to be removed, more than political prosperity seems and adversaries overcome; and wiat to be necessary. An eminent proof weapons but persuasion could the of this is in the period from Tro-founders of Christianity use? For jan to the last of the Antonines, a long time all power was with their princes amongst the best whose enemies. Hence it was that elomemory has been preserved by his- quence became the prevaiiing intorians. Under them the people strument of the champions of the were happily governed ; for virtue new religion. St. Chrysostome, gave the law. The carth was hap- whose name alone recals the high Ps; yet genius slept. Some men ideas his cotemporaries had of his of refined judgment remained ; but eloquence, may perhaps be'opposed in eloquence and poetry Rome and to whatever antiquity possessed of Greece were reduced to declaimers grand in that art. Who does not and sophists, occupied in dealing feel in the Fathers a happy mixture out praise for hire, or plunged into of dignity and tenderness, of the vethe unmeaning disputes of the hement and the pathetic, of sublimeschools.

movements and benignant touches, Towards the middle of the fourth with all that facile and natural elocentury, when Rome was no longer cution which is one of the essential tlie sole capital of the world; when characters. of every age that has barbariins on every side menaced a formed a grand epoch in the histocorrupted people, pretending still ry of letters ? to the empire of the universe, a new With respect to the Pagan zheteloquence arose with a new religion, oricians, the opponents of the Fawhich, from prisons and the scaf- thers, more of learning than of talfold, mounted the throne of the Cz-ents or eloquence was to be found sars. This august and powerful amongst them. And after this tranvoice was that of tlie orators of sient splendour, which religion had Christianity; although such is the restored to letters, the irruptions of power of prejudice, that perhaps the barbarians, from the fifth to the there may be some surprize. on tenth century, more and more spread hearing men thus described who over the West the darkness of ig. are no longer known to us but as. norance; and if during this long inFathers of the Church; and no terval some men superior to the doubt, it will be unexpected to rank rest arose, bone of them had force as successors of Dumosthenes, and enough to elevate degraded letters Cicero, men whom we are accus- or the decayed arts. Constantino.. tomed to view as the successors of ple was now the centre of these in the Apostles. Without, however, their fallen condition ; but the schowounding the veneration which is lastic art, with its controversies, given to the latter title, it is princi-joined with religion which it corpally with relation to the influence rupted, had acquired an imporsof their genius and talents on let. tance which discouraged every otlıters that we have now to consider er study among the nations who them. And regarding the Fathers had reared their throne amidst the in this point of view, we may read-luins of the Roman empire. Theily descry the causes which thus odoric, who accomplished more for contributed to give a new life to el letters than could have been expectoquence. A new order of ideas led from a Gothic king, was unable

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