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581. Ardebant: had been desiring.' H. 535, 1; LM. 738; A. 277, 6; B. 260, 4; G. 234; (H. 462, II, 2).
582. Nate dea: 'O goddess born’; a frequent appellation of Aeneas, as the son of Venus.
584. Unus abest: i.e. Orontes, who was lost in the storm, ipsius ante oculos, as described in 11. 113–117.
585. dictis matris : see ll. 390, 391.
590, 591. lumen Purpureum : 'the ruddy glow'; the brilliant complexion supposed to belong to the gods.
591. laetos honores: "sparkling beauty'; a beauty full of the joy of youth; expressing and giving joy; honores is for the singular honorem, in the sense of decus. adflarat: ‘had imparted.'
592. Quale decus: see note on l. 430. manus : “the hands (of artists).' Cf. 1. 455. aut ubi: ‘or (such beauty as appears, quale decus est) when. In works of art ivory was sometimes combined with gold or with wood (see X, 136); marble and silver also are made to appear more beautiful by contrast with a setting of gold.
594. cunctis : dative, with improvisus.
597. miserata : a participle, equivalent to a relative clause, quae miserata es; as passi, l. 199.
598. que — que: for et - et. See note on 1. 18.
599. omnium: H. 451, 2; LM. 573; A. 218, a ; B. 204, 1; G. 374; (H. 399, I, 3).
600. Urbe domo socias : biddest us share thy city and thy home. The ablative denotes that in respect to which they are made associates.
601. Non opis est nostrae : = non possumus. H. 447; LM. 557; A. 214, d; B. 198, 3; G. 366; (H. 402). nec quicquid, etc.: ‘nor (is it in the power of the Trojan race) whatever of the Trojan race exists anywhere.'
603. pios: Dido is pius in fulfilling the duty of kindness and hospitality towards strangers. "If the conscientious fulfillment of duty is properly appreciated by any divinities in the universe.'
604. iustitia, mens conscia recti: refer to her scrupulous performance of such duties. For sibi and recti, see H. 451, 2, N. 2.
607. montibus: dative of reference with lustrabunt used for montium limiting convexa. See note on cui, l. 448. Trans., “While the shadows move along the sides of the mountains,' i.e. as long as the sun shall pursue his diurnal course.
608. pascet: the sky or aether was supposed to feed’ the stars, or to furnish the subtle fiery element which nourished and kept them burning.
6o9. tuum: see note on l. 553.
610. Quae me cumque : 'whatsoever lands summon me'; whether I accept your invitation to dwell in Carthage, or go to other lands. For the tmesis, see note on l. 412.
611. Ilionea: the Greek form of the accusative in -ea is usually taken from the Ionic form -éa, but here and in III, 122, from the other Ionic form -sa.
612. Post: for postea.
613–694. Dido, having recovered from her firsi surprise, addresses Aeneas courteously, and immediately prepares to entertain her new guests with royal hospitality. Aeneas sends Achates to the ships, to summon Ascanius and to bring suitable presents for the queen. Venus causes Cupid to assume the form of Ascanius, while she conveys the latter to Idalium.
613. primo: “at first’; not an adjective here. Cf. IV, 176. 614. Casu - tanto: “at the wonderful destiny of the man.'
616. immanibus : 'savage,' because inhabited by the savage Libyans. oris * see note on l. 377.
617. Dardanio: the o is retained here in scanning, and the verse is spondaic. See H. 735, 3; LM. 1131; A. 362, a; B. 368, 2; G. 784; (H. 610, 3).
619. Teucrum: Teucer, who was banished by his father from Salamis on his return from the Trojan war because he had not hindered or revenged the death of his brother Ajax, settled in Cyprus, which was conquered and bestowed upon him by Belus, the king of Sidon. venire: H. 618, 2; A. 336 A, N. I; G. 281, 2, N.; (H. 537, 1).
620. nova regna: he called his new city Salamis. 622. dicione : cf. 1. 236.
623. cognitus (est): H. 392; LM. 471; A. 205, d; B. 255, 2; G. 285, EXC. I; (H. 463, 1). mihi: see note on ulli, l. 440.
624. Pelasgi: here for Graeci.
625. Ipse hostis: "even he (Teucer), though an enemy'; though he had fought against the Trojans. Teucros : so called from their ancestor Teucer of Crete.
626. ortum volebat: 'gave it out,' wished it to be understood that he was descended.' Volo is sometimes used, as here, equivalent to habere volo.
627. iuvenes: as in l. 321. tectis : dative with succedite.
632. templis : for in templis. In the Homeric age, however, a thanksgiving sacrifice in honor of guests and strangers was offered at the family altar, not in temples. honorem : 'sacrifice'; as in l. 49.
635. Terga : ‘bodies,' as often for corpora.
636. Munera, laetitiam: are in apposition with the foregoing accusatives. She sends these things .as presents and the enjoyment of the day'; ie means of enjoying the day; a hendiadys (see note on 1. 61), equivalent to 'gifts for a day of enjoyment,' or ‘festal-day.' Dei, “the god of joy,' i.e. Bacchus (see IX, 337), is the better authorized Ms. reading, but A. Gellius (IX, 14, 8, see Introd., p. 25) ascribed it to the ignorance of the copyists. For the form dii, see H. 134, 2; LM. 236; A. 74, a ; B. 52, 2; G. 63, N. 1. (H. 121, 1).
637. domus interior: see note on II, 483 and 487.
637, 638. domus splendida Instruitur: Servius (see Introd., p. 26) interprets as an example of prolepsis or anticipation, joining splendida in sense with instruitur rather than with the subject domus, as if it were domus instruitur ut regali luxu splendida sit. Trans., “The house is adorned with royal wealth and splendor. For other examples of prolepsis, see 1. 659, III, 236; IV, 22.
Fig. 9. — Necklaces from Troy (1. 654) [Reprinted, by permission, from Schliemann's Ilios. Copyright, 1880, by Harper & Brothers.]
639. Arte - superbo : 'Coverlets there are, skillfully wrought and of royal purple.' Supply sunt.
640. Ingens argentum: ‘massive plate.' mensis : for in mensis. caelata in auro: 'carved on gold.' The deeds of her Phoenician ancestors were chased on the vessels of gold and silver.
642. ducta: 'transmitted' or 'derived.' 645. ferat, ducat: express the purpose of praemittit, and would require
haec: refers to all the incidents just narrated in regard to Aeneas and his friends. ipsum: relates to Ascanius.
646. cari: carus is both subjective and objective; “that loves,' or 'that is loved. Here it is used in the former sense, 'fond.' in Ascanio stat: 'is fixed on Ascanius.'
648. pallam: an'ample robe covering the entire person, and worn over the stola. See figure of Juno, facing p. 33. signis auroque : 'with figures of gold ’; hendiadys (see note on 1. 61) for signis aureis.
ut in prose.
649. circumtextum acantho: 'bordered with the yellow acanthus.' Pere haps the leaves of the acanthus were imitated in embroidery with golden threads; hence, “yellow.''
650. Ornatus : namely, the palla and velamen. Mycenis : put for Greece, as in II, 577.
651. peteret: has the last syllable long under the ictus. See note on 1. 308. 652. donum: also refers to the “robe' and veil.'
653. sceptrum : supply ferre iubet. The scepter was borne not only by sovereigns, but by other persons of rank.
654. Maxima: "eldest.' See note on l. 521. collo: dative of purpose with monile. Cf. scaenis, l. 429.
655. duplicem : 'double,' i.e. twofold with the two materials of which it was composed — “gems' and 'gold.' Cf. 11. 648, 728; III, 467.
656. celerans: for ut celeraret. Cf. orantes, l. 519. 658. faciem et ora: 'in form and features.'
659. donis : join with incendat ; 'that he may with (aided by) the gifts inflame the queen to madness.' Furentem is proleptic. See note on l. 637. Cupid is conceived as exercising his own power, while aided also by the princely gifts of Aeneas; for these awaken kind feelings in Dido. Cf. 1. 714.
660. ossibus : cf. VII, 355.
661. domum : "house'; i.e. 'race' or 'nation, as in l. 284. ambiguam, bilingues: these words express the natural prejudice of Virgil and the Romans, who employed the term Punica fides as a synonym for bad faith.
662. Urit: “burns,' disturbs (her).' Supply eam. She is troubled with the fear of Juno's enmity and her skill in mischief. cura recursat: the anxiety of Venus about Aeneas had been relieved by the promises of Jupiter (see 11. 257 sqq.); but now, as the banquet hour approaches at nightfall (sub noctem), she thinks of the new perils of the Trojans, and her fear returns. There may be an allusion to the fact that night is apt to bring back and magnify the anxieties of the mind.
664. meae — temnis : ‘my strength, who alone art my great power, my child, who dost set at naught the Typhoian missiles of the supreme father.' solus : is to be joined with the preceding words. The thunderbolts of Jupiter slew the giant Typhoeus, hence Typhoia. Ancient artists represented Cupid as breaking in mockery the thunderbolts of Jupiter.
666. tua numina : 'thy divine power.'
668. iactetur: the last syllable is lengthened by the ictus. odiis : cf. 11. Ą and 251, ob iram.
669. Nota: for notum. This accords with the Greek idiom. See Had. ley's Greek Gr. 635; Goodwin's, 899, 2.
671. Iunonia: hospitalities which are extended by the people of Juno, and which are subject to her influences, can not be safe for the Trojans quo se vertant: 'what direction they may take.'
672. cardine : ablative of attendant circumstance denoting time. 673. ilamma: 'with burning love.'
674, 675. ne quo — teneatur : 'that she may not be changed by any divine influence, but may be held,' etc. Ut supplied before teneatur is suggested by the foregoing ne.
675. mecum: 'in common with me'; i.e. as well as I. 676. Qua: 'in what manner?' The question depends on accipe mentem. 677. cari: as in l. 646.
679. pelago, flammis : ablative with restantia. The preposition de, which would regularly be used, is omitted.
680. sopitum: see note on summersas, l. 69. 682. qua: as in l. 18. dolos : 'wiles.' medius occurrere : = intervenire, interfere.'
683. Tu: is emphatic, as opposed to Hunc (1. 680). faciem Falle : 'counterfeit his form.' noctem : see H. 471, 4; LM. 618; A. 247, C; B. 217, 3; G. 296, R. 4; (H. 417, I, N. 2).
684. pueri puer: the association of ideas is aided by the juxtaposition of the words. Cf. V, 569; X, 734. See H. 667; LM. 1146; A. 344, g; B. 350, 10; G. 681; (H. 563).
686. Regales - Lyaeum : 'Amidst the royal banquet and the flow of wine.' 688. Cf. VII, 350.
690. gressu gaudens incedit: equivalent to gressu gaudei' incedere. The god takes delight in assuming the form and gait of lulus, partly on account of his sportive nature, and partly, perhaps, in the anticipation of mischief. The former seems to be the predominant, if not the whole, idea.
691. Ascanio: dative of reference, equivalent to a possessive genitive. H. 425, 4, N.; LM. 538; A. 235, a; B. 188, 1, N.; G. 350, 1: (H. 384, to N. 2),