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Psychology, or the American Journal of sible typhoid fever? If so, how?
16. Can children be protected from pos12. What is the cause of cancer? sible diptheria? If so, how? 13. Is there any cure for it?
17. Will your good intentions save you 14. Is the foundation of the Chiro- from the consequences if you are ignorant practic Method of curing disease sound? of nature's laws?
15. Can you protect yourself from pos
HEALTH EDUCATION FOR SECONDARY
THE FOURTH ANNUAL HEALTH
EDUCATION CONFERENCE From the Synopsis Prepared by the Division of Health Education, American
Child Health Association HE Fourth Annual Health Educa
tion Conference, arranged by the
Division of Health Education of the “In organizing a health education proAmerican Child Association at the invi- gram for the secondary schools we need tation of the University of Chicago, met an expert in the central office who is a at Ida Noyes Hall during the week of member of the staff, appointed to carry June 22-26. The participating members out the health education program”, said came from the varied fields of child Chairman Barr of the University of Wishealth, in number approximately two hun- consin. “This person should be a dred, and geographically distributed from ordinator of instruction, for we must bring Salzburg, Austria, to the Hawaiian together home economics, physical educaIslands. To meet the needs of the varied tion, and health education specialists. In interests of the conference members, the case there is not such a health education meetings were planned in three sections: director, the superintendent should asThe Health Program in Secondary sume the role of co-ordinator, or the prinSchools, Teacher Training for Health cipal in each building should be responEducation, and Materials for Health sible for the health program. To set up Education.
a functioning health program we must The members asked that students being look upon the children as human beings prepared for service in our normal schools instead of cogs in a machine." and teachers' colleges be equipped with “incidental” health method, or by em
The question of teaching health by the fundamental health knowledge, that the phasizing a health fact or point of interest everyday lives of these students should in whatever subject it may happen to illustrate this knowledge, and that the occur, was discussed. It was unanimously dormitories and cafeterias should be or- agreed that an interdepartmental health
committee is essential in every secondary ganized to this end.
school because of the potential contribuAnother strongly-felt need was for an
tions which each department has for accumulation of facts gathered from re- health education. search studies, which could be used in
MINIMUM ESSENTIALS OF HEALTH EDUCAcampaigns to convince legislatures, governors and communities of the necessity of Miss Cara L. Harris, Director of Health a health education program.
Education, Child Health Demonstration,
TION COURSES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
Murfreesboro, Tennessee, briefly outlined school pupils ? (Dr. Wood is making such a study
for college students.) the outstanding essentials of a health edu- 3. What are the specific physical defects and deficiencation course: (1) Knowledge of the cies of entering secondary school pupils ? human body and its workings, so that it 4. What are the causes of absences due to illness? will be respected and properly cared for 5. What are the specific contributions of each of the
several secondary school subjects to the health by the high school boy or girl; (2) phys- program and what methods can be applied for their ical examination of each student so that
6. To what extent does the health instruction in present he will know how he stands in relation
courses reach the whole student body ? to the average, what his specific weak- 7. What are the specific opportunities offered in the nesses are, and how he should care for
secondary schools for the learning of health prac
tices and precepts by the actual doing thereof? them; (3) a close follow-up of individual 8. What are the minimum essentials of content of physical defects; (4) a knowledge of the health instruction for secondary schools? principals involved in sanitary surround
9. What motives are most effective in interesting sec
ondary students in forming health habits? ings and the ability to operate the mechananism of the heating plant and of the TEACHER TRAINING FOR HEALTH EDUCATION plumbing installation, etc.; (5) the civic The purpose of health education in the aspects of health, including instruction of teacher training institutions is two-fold: the ways by which health can be promoted Promotion of the highest degree of perin the community; (6) necessity for spe- sonal health and social efficiency among cific immunity to communicable diseases the prospective teachers, and development as well as the development of a proper of an intelligent understanding of the community attitude toward healthful essentials of child health and the means habits of living; (7) knowledge of nutri- of realizing the objective of child health. tion, rest and activity; (8) some mental
The following were considered as fundahygiene to help the student adjust himself mental to a health education program in to his surroundings and to other people;
the teacher training institution: (9) sex hygiene providing sufficient infor
1. A job analysis of the practical health education mation to protect the individual student program of the teacher in service. and foster an open-mindedness toward the
2. Incentives to wholesome living on the part of the
student should spring from professional, social, and subject.
personal motives. Not enough emphasis has been Other suggestions were made for the placed on the professional and social motives. building of the health education course
3. Every course in the institution should be conducted
with a definite recognition of the contribution it for secondary schools, such as first aid, reasonably can make to health education. simple nursing procedures and safety first 4. An interdepartmental health education committee
should be in each teacher training institution. The practices. The criticism was made that in
committee should organize the interdepartmental many schools the game procedures violate program and co-ordinate the work of the various
instructors and courses. the maxims of hygiene teaching. Uniforms 5. Tests and criteria should be developed for the and locker room facilities should conform practical evaluation of the specific contribution of to the health principles taught. Health as
each course to the school health program. a factor of success in later life should be
The discussion brought out these furbrought to the attention of high school ther points of emphasis in the organizastudents.
tion of the program:
1. The futility of attempting io teach nutrition or home STUDIES SUGGESTED
economics without practical nutrition service. The section on secondary school health 2. The necessity of public health knowledge based upon
community needs. education decided that definite studies
3. The importance of biology as an essential subjectshould be made in determining the needs matter field furnishing the scientific facts for sex and the achievements of such a program.
4. The indispensable value of developing wholesome 1. What are the specific health practices, habits, knowl- attitudes toward sex, reproduction, and life, through
edge and attitudes possessed by entering secondary direct and indirect factors and influences, to replace school pupils, and also by pupils graduating ?
emergency, short or special courses in sex hygiene 2. What are the specific health interests of secondary which are always unsatisfactory makeshifts.
HEALTH PROGRAM AS A POLICY
made to further well-being of students. The scale
should include William B. Owen, President of the Chi- a. Physical environment. cago Normal College, stated that health b. Standards of health examinations and follow up.
Student health as evidenced by improvement in programs instead of set courses should be
standard of student health or living. the policy of all educational institutions 7. Investigation and evaluation of existing courses and that the old courses of nature study
(required and elective) contributing to health in
relation to the following: should be displaced in the elementary Accuracy of subject-matter. school by a study of life processes, food
b. Organization of subject-matter to further the
health aims of the institution. values and rest, with the main idea of Degree to which the courses given are paralled
by opportunities offered by the school to practice teaching health control.
the theories taught. Referring to teacher training methods, 8. Study of existing practices in evaluating student Dr. Owen said: “We should apply the
work in health education classes with a view to
establishing criteria for determining the part actual same measures to our student teachers
student health improvement and the student's effort that they will apply to their pupils. Unless
in this direction should play in total credit.
9. Collection and evaluation of child studies and recertain standards in the care of personal searches from the points of view of anthropology, health can be established in the two years
physiology, and psychology in order to give basic
material for the organization of courses for teachers. in Normal School, the student is not quali- 10. In particular a study of the actual physiological refied to go out to teach. Of teachers of music quirements of growing children on various age
levels. we require a certain ability to sing. We
11. Such an organization of child study courses as will should require a certain standard of all afford laboratory experience for student teachers in health teachers.'
observing child behavior with reference to the child's
physiological, psychological, and social ages and Arising out of the discussions, the fol- needs. lowing suggestions for constructive work,
ESSENTIALS IN BUILDING A HEALTH EDCinvestigation and research were made:
CATION PROGRAM 1. Studies of plans for administering the health pro
gram in teacher training institutions to discover The following essential points were sugtypes of interdepartmental health co-ordination, and their degree of success in securing
gested for the consideration of those builda. Co-ordination.
ing health education courses for teachers: b. Dynamic organization of subject-matter.
1. Inclusion of adequate scientific back2. An analysis of current student loads with a view to
determining the distribution of time spent in work, ground and fundamental subject-matter. rest and recreation for the purpose of establishing 2. Recognition of pedagogical principles
satisfactory type schedules. 3. A study of what constitutes adequate housing stand
involved in health teaching. 3. Provision ards for student-living, covering
for the application of these principles in a. Feeding of students. b. Plan of school grounds and buildings.
actual classroom work under direction and Structure of buildings (covering points of safety, observation. This should include class
energy conservation, and sanitation). d. Furnishings and equipment of building.
room visits, personal conferences and Care of building and grounds in relation to all group conferences between the teachers
the above health needs of students. f. Adequacy of living conditions for students not
and supervisors of health education, and a resident in school buildings.
demonstration school as a visiting center 4. An investigation of such personality studies as have been carried on to date with a view to
for teachers. Before a health education Discovering procedures and personnel best fitted
program is introduced a survey should be to carry on such studies. b. Uncovering the value of such studies in bring- made of the health in the community, the
ing about a satisfactory adjustment of the
health education background of the teach5. An investigation and analysis of typical plans for health examinations of students for the purpose of
ers, and the local agencies that can be utildeveloping types of examination more nearly ized and will co-operate in the school adapted to
Producing immediate improvement of students' health program. Teachers should be cog
health. b. Producing maximum educative effects in con
nizant of the community needs and the servative health measures.
social and economic home conditions of 6. The construction of a scale for ranking teacher
training institutions in accordance with provisions their pupils.
MORE ATTENTION TO NEEDS OF CHILD
cation and the training of such supervisors.
8. Study to discover training being given in profesIn his contribution to the general dis- sional schools for supervisors of health education. cussion, Dr. McCarthy pointed out the
MATERIALS FOR HEALTH EDUCATION vital need for a deeper understanding of
Health education materials were defined tempted to build up curricula and syllabi, by the conference as those which are useful plastering them down upon pupils without
in developing habits, establishing attiknowing anything about the children tudes, and acquiring knowledge in rela
tion to health. themselves. We ought to consider human beings as a totality—not as diseased ton
It was agreed that in developing habits sils, defective vision, malnutrition, etc.
the materials which are most useful are Health is a matter of adjustment of an
those which provide opportunity for organism to its environment. Teachers healthful activity; i. e., facilities in schools should give more attention to the person- and homes which provide the equipment ality of their pupils and help them in mak- for doing the things taught as fundamental ing their adjustment to other people. The to healthful living. It was pointed out that high school age is a critical age for chil- the best teaching materials in relation to dren. We do not know enough of the lives cleanliness include the facilities for keepof our pupils outside of the classroom. ing clean, and that adequate instruction Often something at home is interfering in selection of foods requires opportunity with their normal efficient performance of for selection and such materials as will school duties. That is one of the reasons guide right selection. why I believe that the visiting teacher Among the materials most useful in demovement is very important. As a con- veloping attitudes are those which will inference interested in health education, crease the child's experience. Plants and what can we do in a constructive way? animals furnish first hand materials on We ought to include in the high school which the child can observe the practical health education program a course in application of his knowledge. It was also mental hygiene.”
suggested that, without undue self-conThe following suggestions for construc- sciousness, the child will observe, in relative work, investigation and research tion to himself, the application of health arising out of the discussions were made: knowledge. 1. The development of health tests for teachers in Material for enlarging the child's health
service, involving habit, attitude, and knowledge, in order to provide a basis for organizing courses of experience and knowledge by actual obserfurther training for teachers in service.
vation of the activities of public and pri2. Development of a technique for determining base lines in relation to which health education work in
vate enterprises supplying the communiany given community may be planned, and progress ties' needs, such as dairies, farms, city measured—such base line to include physical status of children and the environmental conditions.
water plants, etc., may be provided. Where a. A study of health status, customs, and existing first-hand observation or experience is not conditions influencing health of teacher in ser
possible, a motion picture of such activi3. An evaluation of varied ways and means of giving ties may supply a possible substitute.
aid, instruction and training to teachers in service. a. In Particular-What new courses need to be The printed page must supplement, in
given? How shall they be organized and related terpret, and enlarge these life experiences
to actual school practice? 4. A study of the effectiveness of teacher training which the child gets through activity and
courses, as indicated by the comparative effectiveness observation. In addition to the informaof health work done by young teachers who go out from teacher training institutions.
tion gained from the textbook, knowledge 5. An investigation of the relationship between health must be acquired from many sources,
and scholarship with particular reference to the effects of improved health on scholarship.
of particular value being those current 6. A similar study of the relationship between health sources which have the quality of reality,
and school attendance. 7. A study to determine who is supervising health edu- such as newspapers, magazines, materials and allocation should proceed in the light of sound reading in their leisure hours."
from federal, state, and municipal depart- Dean Gray made these suggestions: “Do ments and findings of research labora- not pervert real facts to make them intertories. Such material should be selected teresting, because clear, true facts are according to scientific and educational as interesting as fiction. Avoid selections standards.
having too hard words, too mature
ideas and expressions, and see that the EDUCATIONAL CRITERIA FOR HEALTH MA
reading selected for the pupils is easier TERIALS
than their grades in school. Material, “If we conceive education as a process when written, must be charged with interin which children are trained in ways which make for fuller, better living, the tional or recreational reading.
est whether it is prepared for informaeducational criteria for health material be adapted to the children for whom it is may be summarized as follows: What
prepared. materials will produce the desired changes ?
“We must adapt material to our aim," What materials are dynamic in that they he continued; “extensive reading is better engage the child in the search for health than intensive reading if you are trying to knowledge, lead him to build and persist obtain a range of ideas. in health habits and enlist his active at- ideals can be cultivated in the field of titude toward the health aspects of his health education as in any other field. own experience? Studies are needed to
Set up the attitude you want to cultivate show the comparative effectiveness of ma
as a definite problem until the child beterials as measured by the changes pro
comes familiar with the processes in his duced in the child, but there is further daily routine. Acquaint children with need for studies by means of which text
the source of material and teach them to books per se may be improved,” said Miss
interpret it.” Laura Zirbes, lecturer in elementary edu
It was the conclusion of the conference cation, Teachers College, Columbia Uni- that the development and improvement of versity
health education materials would be furRELATION OF MATERIALS TO HEALTH PRO- thered by the following constructive work,
investigation, and research: The success of the health education pro
CONSTRUCTIVE WORK gram depends in large part upon the '1. Pictures and other graphic materials which further
the aims of health education should be collected preparation of materials, their technique,
and collections made available for circulation for and the physical form in which they are classroom use. prepared, according to the statement of 2. True stories from the fields of history, biography,
science, and literature should be selected or written Dean William S. Gray, professor of edu- for use in health education.
3. Individual classrooms should be used as sources of cation, University of Chicago.
vivid, fresh materials which are the direct outgrowth Dean Gray emphasized the importance of pupil experiences and classroom activities. of having available fundamental material 4. Qualified agencies should undertake to furnish
critical analysis of current, scientific material as a to put into the hands of teachers and pu- professional service. pils. He said: “There is a great lack of 5. Materials valid from the standpoint of content
should be adapted not only to the level of the stuaccurate, scientific facts that teachers can dent group, but also to the particular needs and use in health teaching. I should like to
resources of the community.
6. Ways and means should be discovered for training see our schools handle this health educa- the critical judgment of students in respect to the tion program so that children will seek in- scientific soundness of subject-matter. formation about health practices and
INVESTIGATIONS health conditions, year after year, as they 1. A critical analysis should be made of the tremendous
mass of available health materials, and evaluation grow older, just as today they seek good
2. Studies should be made for the purpose of deterIn organizing the reading materials,
mining what health knowledge children need.